Summary A History of Western Music

ISBN-10 0393979911 ISBN-13 9780393979916
409 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "A History of Western Music". The author(s) of the book is/are Burkholder. The ISBN of the book is 9780393979916 or 0393979911. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - A History of Western Music

  • 13 New Styles in the Seventeenth Century

  • What had a major effect on music in the 1600s and why?
    Religious and political conflicts -- because rulers and church authorities remained important patrons
  • What did the rise of capitalism do to help music?
    Put money in the hands of individuals, giving rise to public opera and concerts, and increasing demand for published music, instruments, and lessons.
  • Which country was best for musicians who relied on patrons and why?
    Italy because rulers, cities, and leading families supported music and the arts as a way of competing for prestige
  • What year were the first public opera houses established in Venice?
  • What year were the first public concerts in England?
    1672 - but the practice did not become widespread in Europe until the later 1700s
  • barroco
    Portugese word for "a misshapen pearl"; origin of the word Baroque
  • Baroque period dates
  • Most striking aspect of seventeenth century literature, arts, and music...?
    Its focus on the dramatic - Baroque virtues of drama, dynamism, and emotional expression
  • The Catholic Church saw Baroque artwork (like Bernini's "The Ecstasy of St. Teresa"), with its focus on emotion and designed to arouse strong feelings, as a persuasive instrument in its campaign to keep its flock faithful and to counteract the Reformation.
  • Composers did not try to express their personal feelings. They sought to portray the affections in a generic sense, using specific conventional techniques.
  • prima pratica vs. seconda pratica
    Monteverdi and his brother coined these terms and said that in the "first practice" one had to follow the rules and so the music dominated the text.

    In the "second practice" voice-leading rules can be broken in order to express something in the text.
  • Cruda Amarilli
    "Cruel Amaryllis," a madrigal by Monteverdi which is a good example of seconda pratica, where the rules of counterpoint are broken deliberately in order to highlight the emotions expressed in the text.
  • L'Orfeo
    Opera by Monteverdi written in 1607
  • Vespro della Beata Vergine
    "Vespers of the Blessed Virgin" choral piece by Monteverdi published in 1610
  • Treble-bass polarity arose in the Baroque, which contrasted with the Renaissance's emphasis on the polyphony of independent lines. Basically, the bass and treble lines became more prominent and the inner voices were written-out or improvised to fill in the harmonies. This was not new really but the polarity between the bass and treble as the two essential lines was new, starting around 1600.
  • basso continuo
    The composer wrote out the melody and the bass line but left it to the performers to fill in the appropriate chords or inner parts.
  • figured bass
    When the chords indicated in basso continuo are something other than root position triads, the composer had to add figures--numbers or flat or sharp signs--to indicate precise notes required.
  • The use of diverse timbres in combination became characteristic of the Baroque era, in contrast to the sixteenth-century preference for homogeneous ensembles
  • 14 The Invention of Opera

  • Three sources/influences on opera were: pastoral drama, madrigal and madrigal cycle, intermedio.
  • monody
    a term used by modern historians to embrace all styles of accompanied solo singing practiced in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centures
  • Dafne
    Composer Jacopo Peri's setting of Ottavio Runccini's pastoral poem by the same name. The first opera! performed in 1598
  • Jacopo Peri and Ottavio Rinuccini, convinced that Greek tragedies were sung in their entirety, set out to recreate the ancient genre in modern form and that led to the first opera.
  • L'Euridice
    The earliest surviving opera by Jacopo Peri, performed in 1600
  • For dialogue, Peri invented a new idiom, soon known as recitative style. He recalled the distinction made in ancient Greek theory between continuous changes of pitch in speech and intervallic motion in song. He sought a kind of speech-song that was halfway between them, similar to the style that scholars thought the Greeks used for reciting heroic poems.
  • By mid-seventeenth century, Italian opera had acquired the 3 main features it would maintain without essential change for the next 200 years. They were:
    1. concentration on solo singing
    2. separation of recit and aria
    3. use of varied musical styles
  • Anna Renzi
    Leading lady of the Venetian operatic stage in the 1640s who was the first "diva" and who set the standard for future prima donna
  • Antonio Cesti
    1623-1669; A leading Venetian opera composer who excelled in lyrical arias and duets. Most famous opera is Il pomo d'oro
  • Francesco Cavalli
    1602-1676; A leading Venetian opera composer. Pupil of Monteverdi's and organist at St. Mark's
  • Francesca Caccini
    Early female Italian opera composer (1587-ca. 1645) of La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina (The Liberation of Ruggeiro from the Island of Alcine). She was the highest-paid musician employed by the grand duke of Tuscany, and was one of the most prolific composers of dramatic music of her time.
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Latest added flashcards

Claudio Monteverdi dates
emotions such as sadness, joy, anger, love, fear, excitement, or wonder - caused by "humors," which could be affected and rebalanced by music.
Christmas Oratorio
J. S. Bach oratorio meant to be performed during the Christmas season - a particularly sophisticated example of parody music
Samson (baroque)
This is a lost "tragedie en musique" by Rameau
Which composer is generally regarded as the most important German composer before J. S. Bach?
Heinrich Schutz
Samuel Scheidt

German composer, organist, and teacher of the early Baroque
Johann Stamitz

Czech composer and violinist. Considered the founding father of the Mannheim school. Music is transitional between Baroque and Classical periods
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
Second son of J. S. Bach - considered a genius improviser and organist, but died in poverty because of unstable income and employment
What was the "War of the Romantics"
Schism between prominent musicians in the second half of the 19th century - "traditionalists vs. progressives"
developing variation
compositional technique used by Brahms in which variations are produced through the development of existing material. Term coined by Schonberg