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Summary - Abnormal Psychology
1 introduction and historical overview
how do we call the field concerned with the nature, development, and treatment of mental disorders?psychopathology
how do we call the destructive beliefs and attitudes held by society that are ascribed to groups considered different in some manner?stigma
what are the four characteristics of a stigma?
- a distinguishing label is applied
- the label refers to undesirable attitudes
- people with the label are seen as different
- people with the label are discriminated against
what are the characteristics of a mental disorder?
- occurs within the individual
- involves clinically significant difficulties in thinking, feeling, or behaving
- it involves dysfunction in processes that support mental functioning
- it is not a specific reaction to an event
- it is not primarily the result of social deviance or conflict with society
of which components does a mental disorder consist?
- personal distress
- violation of social norms
how do we call impairment in some important area of life?disability
how do we call an internal organism is unable to perform its natural ability.dysfunction
how do we call the doctrine that an evil being or spirit can dwell within a person and control his or her mind and body?demonology
how do we call the ritualistic casting out of evil spirits?exorcism
hypocrates was the first to regard the brain as the organ of the mind, and stated that illness of any kind would have a natural cause rather than a religious one. In which three categories did he classify mental disorders?
- phrenitis, or brain fever
hippocrates believed that normal brain functioning was due to a balance among four humors, or fluids in the body. which fluids were these?
- black bile
- yellow bile
after the dark ages and demonology, what was the new explanations for odd behavior?a misalignment of the moon and stars, lunacy
how do we call refuges for the confinement and care of people with mental illness?asylums
how do we call a form of treatment in mental hospitals freed from the cruel treatments, where patients had close contact with attendants who talked and read to them. encouraged them into purposeful activity?moral treatment
how do we call a syndrome associated with syphilis, caused by infection, which includes a steady deterioration of both mental and physical abilities?general paresis
what were the developments of biological approaches considering mental illness during the 19th and 20th century?
- discovery of the possibility of bacterial infections causing mental illness
- discovery of genetics ability to have mental disorders run in families
- development of biological treatments
how do we call a biological treatment to treat schizophrenia by producing epileptic seizures using electricity?electroconvulsive therapy
which biological treatments were discovered in the late 19th, early 20th century?
- insulin-coma therapy; induce a coma with large dosages of insulin to people with schizophrenia
- electroconvulsive therapy; produce full epileptic seizures with electricity on people with schizophrenia and severe depression
- prefrontal lobotomy; surgery that destroys tracts from the frontal lobes to other parts of the brain, used on violent people
how do we call the mental disorder characterized by physical incapabilities like blindness or paralysis for which no physical explanation could be found?hysteria
which psychologic approaches to mental illnesses developed in the 19th and 20th century?
- hypnotism to treat hysteria
- cathartic method; treating hysteria by releasing emotional tension about traumatic events while under hypnosis
- the psychoanalytic theory
how do we call reliving an emotional trauma and releasing emotional tension by expressing previously forgotten thoughts about the event?catharsis
how do we call the theory that psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts in the individual?psychoanalytic theory
how do we call what freud calls the psyche?the mind
in which three parts is the psyche divided according to freud?
- the id
- the ego
- the superego
how do we call the storage for all the energy needed to run the psyche and it's primary urges?the id
how do we call the id's energy?libido
how do we call the id seeking immediate gratification of the urges by producing tension in an individual, causing the individual to eliminate the tension as quickly as possible?pleasure principle
how do we call the part of the psyche that is focused around dealing with reality?the ego
how do we call the ego mediating between the demands of reality and the id's demands for immediate gratification of urges?the reality principle
how do we call the part of the psyche that operates as a censuring force against the id, it is the conscience of an individual?superego
how do we call a strategy used by the ego to protect itself from anxiety while it tries to resolve conflicts and satisfy demands of the id and superego?defense mechanism
which defense mechanisms of the ego are distinguished by freud?
- reaction formation
- ezelsbruggetje; 4R2D2PS
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; keeping unacceptable impulses or wishes from conscious awareness.repression
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; not accepting a painful reality into conscious awarenessdenial
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; attributing to someone else, one's own unacceptable thoughts or feelings.projection
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; redirecting emotional responses from their real target to someone elsedisplacement
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; converting an unacceptable feeling into it's opposite behaviorreaction formation
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; retreating to the behavioral patterns of an earlier stage of development.regression
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; offering acceptable reasons for an unacceptable action or attitude.rationalization
which defense mechanism of the ego is described; converting unacceptable aggressive or sexual impulses into socially valued behaviors.sublimation
what are the major techniques of psychoanalysis?
- free association
- analysis of transference
which major technique of psychoanalysis is described; the analyst points out to the patient the meaning of certain behaviors of the patient.interpretation
which major technique of psychoanalysis is described; the patient tries to say whatever comes to mind without censoring anythingfree association
which major technique of psychoanalysis is described; the patient responds to the analyst in ways that the patient has previously responded to other important figures in his life and the analyst helps the patient understand and interpret these responses.analysis of transference
which two psychoanalytic perspectives developed out of freud's psychoanalysis?
- analytical psychology
- individual psychology
describe the analytical psychology theory?
- in addition to the personal unconscious, there is a collective unconscious which is common to all humans
- the collective unconscious consists primarily of archetypes; basic categories that humans use to conceptualize the world
- next to our id urges, we have a mix of masculine and feminine traits in spiritual and religious urges
describe the individual psychology.
- people are tied to their society because fulfillment is found in doing things for the social good
what are the commonly held assumptions today that derived from freud's psychoanalytic theory?
- childhood experiences help shape adult personality
- there are unconscious influences on behavior
- the causes and purposes of human behavior are not always obvious
how do we call a view that focuses on observable behavior rather than on consciousness or mental functioning?behaviorism
which types of learning influenced behaviorism?
- classical conditioning
- operant conditioning
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Why is it hard to define a psychosis (and therefore not being used by DSM)
Because everyone's reality is different and as a psychologist you would be implying that your reality is the truth if someone else's reality deviates from it
What is psychosis?
A disruption of reality
What is the most important symptom of delusional disorder?
Being troubled by persistent delusions
What is schizoaffective disorder?
A mixture of symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorders
What is the most important diagnostic characteristic of brief psychotic disorder?
It can last from 1 day to 1 month and is often brought on by extreme stress
What makes schizophreniform disorder different from classic schizophrenia?
The symptoms are the same but last only 1 to 6 months
What are the DSM-5 disorders that fall within the category "Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders"?
Brief psychotic disorder
Brief psychotic disorder
What is a possible explanation of catatonia being rare in modern society?
Because medication works effectively on these disturbed movements or postures
What is catatonia?
A form of disorganized behavior in which people may gesture repeatedly, using peculiar and sometimes complex sequences of movements which often seem to be purposeful
What is the main problem of disorganized behavior?
Being unable to organize their behavior and making it conform to community standards