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Summary - Aging and Older Adulthood
1 Introduction to Aging and Older Adulthood
What is meant by geriatrics?It is the branch of medicine specializing in the medical care and treatment of the diseases and health problems of older adults. (Loosely applied to the study of the disease-related aspects of aging)
What is meant by gerontology?This is the study of the biological, behavioral, and social phenomena from the point of maturity to old age. (Study of healthy older adults)
Two stages of life viewpoint in developmental psychology (Schroots, 1996)According to this perspective, both physical and psychological functions develop up to the point of maturity, after which there is a transition to aging that is characterized by a decline in functioning.
There are many different definitions of age; which types are there?
- Chronological age
- Biological age
- Functional age
- Psychological age
- Social age
Define chronological ageMeasured in units of time that have elapsed since birth
Define biological ageThis has to do with where people stand relative to the number of years that they will live (longevity) It can also be defined in the terms of the body's organs and physical appearance
Define functional ageHas to do with the person's competence in carrying out specific tasks.
Define psychological ageGenerally refers to how well a person adapts to changing conditions.
Define social ageHas to do with the views held by most members of a society regarding what individuals in a particular chronological age group should do and how they should behave.
Naarmate mensen ouder worden wordt het verschil tussen hen subjectieve en hun chronologische leeftijd groter, mensen voelen zich jonger dan dat ze zijn.
Wat wordt er bedoelt met 'ageism'Dit is geassocieerd met een paar discriminerende standpunten ten opzichte van oudere volwassenen. (Quadagno, 2008) Negatieve overtuigingen ten overstaan van ouderen. Dit kan zich manifesteren in een lage verwachting in cognitieve capaciteiten, of in negatieve geloven over de ouder zijn capaciteiten om sociaal te doen.
Compassionate stereotypesOuderen worden al hulpeloos gezien en hebben voorspraak (advocacy) nodig.
New ageismMensen zijn overbezorgd en denken dat het niet nodig is om de oudere te consulteren bij het maken van belangrijke levensveranderende beslissingen.
Oudere-ouderen ervaren vaak meer problemen dan de jonge-ouderen, omdat deze meer te maken hebben met ziekte en met het verlies van een partner, hierdoor wordt het steeds lastiger om op zichzelf te blijven wonen.
Normative age-graded influencesBiological and environmental events and occurrences that are associated with chronological age.
Normative history-graded influencesThese influences can result from an event, or they can represent a more gradual evolution of societal structure
Nonnomative life eventsThe influence of nonnomrative life events is not necessarily associated with chronological age or with historical time, but nonetheless such events can play an important role in the development of an individual.
The selective optimization with compensation (SOC) Model of AgingBasisassumptie is dat mensen zich aanpassen gedurende hun hele leven.Terwijl er ontwikkeling plaatsvindt krijgen individuen te maken met zowel verliezen als winsten, naarmate we ouder worden; worden deze verliezen groter en moeilijker om te compenseren.
Ecological Model of AgingEr is een interactie tussen een persoon en zijn omgeving, waarbij er een sprake is van zekere aanpassingsvermogen (adaptation) ; dit wordt gemeten in de maten waarin een persoon zijn emotionele welzijn en gedrag.
People have always been interested in how to slow down the aging process and extend life, but the scientific study of aging and older adulthood is more recent.
Today there are moe older adults and greater recognition that developmeny occurs throughout the adult life span into the older adult years
Geriatrics is the branch of medicine specializing in the medical care and treatment of the diseases and health problems of older adults. Gerontology is the study of biological, behavioral, and scoail aspects of aging from maturity to old age.
As adults get older, the gap between their chronological age and their subjective feelings about age widens. Middle-aged and older adults, especially women, often say they feel younger than their chronological age.
In the US, the majority of older adults remain in the same geographic location even after they retire, but a small percentage relocate. Some return to their home states later if they experience loss of a spouse or health difficulties.
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The phase in life that usually occurs during the young-old years before illness limits activity and during which most individuals are able to live life as they please.
The phase of advanced old age, often marked by the 80th birthday onwar, that brings declining independence and, for all but the most fortunate the need to face deteriorating health.
Physician-assisted suicide (PAS)
A scenario whereby a physician provides the means (such as prescriptions for medication) for ending life, but the patient is responsible for their use.
Care that reduces pain and maximizes comfort for patients and also offers psychological, social, and spiritual support as needed by patients and their families.
Kübler-Ross's 5 stages of death and dying
5 stages - denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance - often seen when a person's trajectory of dying allows time.
An alternative to the acute medical intervention provided in traditional hospital settings weheby a terminally ill patient's QoL is enhanced through palliative treatment, and spiritual, psychological, and social support is provided for patients and their families.
Durable power of attorney in health-care
An advance directive whereby the individual designates a trusted relative or friend to make health-care decisions on his or her behalf in the event of serious incapacitating physical illness or mental incapacity.
The second most common form of dementia in older adults, which includes a broad array of dementias associated with a variety of cascular problems or focal destruction of brain tissue.
The label for symptoms of confusion and agitation that some older adults experience in the late afternoon, evening, or nighttime hours.
Sensory retraining therapy
A type of therapy suited for older adults with limited physical and cognitive capabilities that involves activities and exercises that stimulate their kinesthetic and proprioceptive, tactile, olfactory, auditory, and visual receptors.