Summary Aging and Older Adulthood

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This is the summary of the book "Aging and Older Adulthood". The author(s) of the book is/are Joan T Erber. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Aging and Older Adulthood

  • 1 Introduction to Aging and Older Adulthood

  • What is meant by geriatrics?
    It is the branch of medicine specializing in the medical care and treatment of the diseases and health problems of older adults. (Loosely applied to the study of the disease-related aspects of aging)
  • What is meant by gerontology?
    This is the study of the biological, behavioral, and social phenomena from the point of maturity to old age. (Study of healthy older adults)
  • Two stages of life viewpoint in developmental psychology (Schroots, 1996)
    According to this perspective, both physical and psychological functions develop up to the point of maturity, after which there is a transition to aging that is characterized by a decline in functioning. 
  • There are many different definitions of age; which types are there?
    1. Chronological age
    2. Biological age
    3. Functional age
    4. Psychological age
    5. Social age
  • Define chronological age
    Measured in units of time that have elapsed since birth
  • Define biological age
    This has to do with where people stand relative to the number of years that they will live (longevity) It can also be defined in the terms of the body's organs and physical appearance
  • Define functional age
    Has to do with the person's competence in carrying out specific tasks. 
  • Define psychological age
    Generally refers to how well a person adapts to changing conditions.
  • Define social age
    Has to do with the views held by most members of a society regarding what individuals in a particular chronological age group should do and how they should behave. 
  • Naarmate mensen ouder worden wordt het verschil tussen hen subjectieve en hun chronologische leeftijd groter, mensen voelen zich jonger dan dat ze zijn. 
  • Wat wordt er bedoelt met 'ageism' 
    Dit is geassocieerd met een paar discriminerende standpunten ten opzichte van oudere volwassenen. (Quadagno, 2008) Negatieve overtuigingen ten overstaan van ouderen. Dit kan zich manifesteren in een lage verwachting in cognitieve capaciteiten, of in negatieve geloven over de ouder zijn capaciteiten om sociaal te doen. 
  • Compassionate stereotypes
    Ouderen worden al hulpeloos gezien en hebben voorspraak (advocacy) nodig. 
  • New ageism
    Mensen zijn overbezorgd en denken dat het niet nodig is om de oudere te consulteren bij het maken van belangrijke levensveranderende beslissingen. 
  • Oudere-ouderen ervaren vaak meer problemen dan de jonge-ouderen, omdat deze meer te maken hebben met ziekte en met het verlies van een partner, hierdoor wordt het steeds lastiger om op zichzelf te blijven wonen. 
  • Normative age-graded influences
    Biological and environmental events and occurrences that are associated with chronological age. 
  • Normative history-graded influences
    These influences can result from an event, or they can represent a more gradual evolution of societal structure
  • Nonnomative life events
    The influence of nonnomrative life events is not necessarily associated with chronological age or with historical time, but nonetheless such events can play an important role in the development of an individual. 
  • The selective optimization with compensation (SOC) Model of Aging
    Basisassumptie is dat mensen zich aanpassen gedurende hun hele leven.
    Terwijl er ontwikkeling plaatsvindt krijgen individuen te maken met zowel verliezen als winsten, naarmate we ouder worden; worden deze verliezen groter en moeilijker om te compenseren. 
  • Ecological Model of Aging
    Er is een interactie tussen een persoon en zijn omgeving, waarbij er een sprake is van zekere aanpassingsvermogen (adaptation) ; dit wordt gemeten in de maten waarin een persoon zijn emotionele welzijn en gedrag. 
  • People have always been interested in how to slow down the aging process and extend life, but the scientific study of aging and older adulthood is more recent.
  • Today there are moe older adults and greater recognition that developmeny occurs throughout the adult life span into the older adult years
  • Geriatrics is the branch of medicine specializing in the medical care and treatment of the diseases and health problems of older adults. Gerontology is the study of biological, behavioral, and scoail aspects of aging from maturity to old age.
  • As adults get older, the gap between their chronological age and their subjective feelings about age widens. Middle-aged and older adults, especially women, often say they feel younger than their chronological age.
  • In the US, the majority of older adults remain in the same geographic location even after they retire, but a small percentage relocate. Some return to their home states later if they experience loss of a spouse or health difficulties.
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