Summary An introduction to geographical information systems

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ISBN-10 027372259X ISBN-13 9780273722595
511 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "An introduction to geographical information systems". The author(s) of the book is/are Ian Heywood, Sarah Cornelius, Steve Carver. The ISBN of the book is 9780273722595 or 027372259X. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - An introduction to geographical information systems

  • 1 What is GIS

  • Why difference GIS from other types of information ?
    Because it always refers to certain locaties on the earth's surface.
  • why is geographical information or information about location important?
    reasons are:
    * curiosity
    * the need to survive
    * the need to sloven problems in which location or information about location plays a role
  • location is apparently so important that society has to solve many problems in which location is a crucial issue. Where can you think off ?
    *questions on environment
    *agriculture
    *water management
    *housing
    *traffic
    *regional economisch
    *healthcare
  • Where can GIS be used for?
    Gis can be used for all kinds of societal problems that have a geographical dimension
  • knowing what is where, or what happens where and when, is not only a matter of curiosity, but can also be of critical importance to survive. give an example
    -seasonal high water levels in rivers
    -earthquake risk areas
    -or crop damage by extreme drought
  • location is apparently so important that society has to sloven many problems in which location is a crucial issue. Where can you think off ?
    *questions on environment
    *agriculture
    *water management
    *housing
    *traffic
    *regional economisch
    *healthcare
  • give an example of a location where the activity is happening ?
    think of a highway needs a lot of space for itself, but it also has a huge influence on the location of industrial areas, housing sites and on the environment
  • knowing what is where, or what happens where and when, is not only a matter of curiosity, but can also be of critica importance to survive. give an example
    -seasonal high water levels in rivers
    -earthquake risk areas
    -or crop damage by extreme drought
  • Why is GIS not just a sophisticated software package?
    GIS is not only software, but it also involves specific hardware (computer, digitizing table, plotters, etc.) and procedures (techniques and orders for task implementation). According to some people (e.g. Burrough) it also includes the organisational context in which a GIS project is being performed.
  • What are  the basic components of GIS
    1. computersystems and software
    2. spatial data
    3. Data management and analysis procedures
    4. People
    According to Burrough also organizational context
  • Spatial data can represented as either layers or objects
    use of three basic entity types: points, lines, areas
    raster model or vector model
  • What are the strong points of GIS
    Providing a framework for the efficient collection, storage, analysis and presentation of spatial data
    It can be used to analyse and solve all kinds of societal problems that have a spatial dimension.
  • Three types of GIS analysis procedures:
    1. those used for storage and retrieval
    2.Constrained queries that allow the user to look at patterns in their data
    3. Modelling procedures, or functions, for he prediction of what data might be at adifferent place or time.
  • 1.1 Knowing GIS (SS)

  • What is GIS
    GIS comprehends everything that is necessary to study, analyse and solve scientific, and societal problems with a spatal dimension.
  • What is GIS?
    GIS is a computer system that can hold and use data describing places on the Earth's surface.
  • What can GIS do?
    a set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes.
  • the definitions of GIS cover three main components, which one
    1. they reveal that GiS is a computer system which includes, hardware, software and appropriate procedures (task implementation)
  • what should a well-designed GIS be able to provide ?
    1.quick and easy access to large volumes of data
    2.the ability to:
    select detail by area or theme
    link or merge one data set with another
    analyse spatial characteristics of data
    search for particular characteristics or features in an area
    update data quickly and cheaply and 
    model data and assess alternatieven
    3.output capabilities (maps, graphs, address list and summary statistics
  • what can GIS do?
    can be used to add value to spatial data. by allowing data to be organized and viewed efficiently, by integrating them with other data, by analysis and by the creation of new data that can be operated on in turn, GIS creaties useful information to help decision making.
  • GIS draws on concepts and ideas from many different disciplines, give some examples.
    science draws on disciplines as diverse as cartography, cognitive science, computer science, engineering, environmental sciences, geodesy and so on.
  • What is the definition of GIS
    1.geographical information is information about places on the earth's surface.
    2.geographic information technologies include GPS, remote sensing and geographic information systems.
    3.geographical information systems are both computer systems and software
    4.GIS can have many different manifestations
    5.GIS is used for a great variety of applications
    6.Geographic information science is the science behind GIS technology
  • What are the components which are included in GIS?
    1. the computer system (hardware and operating system)
    2. the software, spatial data, data management and analysis procedures 
    3. the people to operate the GIS
  • What is spatial data? (ruimtelijke gegevens)
    spatial data is characterized by information about position, connections with other features and details of non-spatial characteristics.
  • what is included for the spatial data about one of happy valley's weather station?
    *lattitude and longitude as a geographical reference
    *connection details such as which service roads, lift and ski rails
    *non-spatial data, amount of snowfall, temperature, wind speed and direction
  • what is important and should be considered at the outlet of any GIS project?
    the spatial referencing of spatial data is important
  • the traditional method of representant the geographic space occupied by spatial data is as a series of thematic layers. Give some exempels
    *traditional cartografie maps
    *a map for geology
    *one for soils
  • how is spatial data represented?
    Either as layers or objects and must be simplified before they can be stored on a computer
  • a common way of doing this is to break down all features into three basic entity types, name them
    *points, lines and areas
  • give for the three entity types an example
    *points can be used , for restaurants, rescue stations
    *lines can be used, for roads, rivers
    *areas can be used geographical zones like skizones
  • the functions that a GIS should be able to perform is?
    include data input
    storage
    management
    transformation
    analysis and output
  • GIS analysis procedures can be divided into three types, name them ?
    1.those used for storage and retrieval, for example, presetation capabilities may allow the display of a soil map of the area of interest
    2.constrained queries that allow the user to look at patterns in their data
    example using queries only for erodible soils
    3.modelling procedures or functions for the predicatiën of what data might be at a different time and place. (which stil would be highly vulnerable to erosion in high winds.
  • what contain data layers normally?
    they contain normally data of only one entity type: that is a point or line, or area data
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for the GIS analyse to make use of simple spatial entities (points, lines, and areas) it is necessary to locate them in two dimensions. give an example how to do this ?
think of an inflated ball, the ball is the globe, with the countries in their correct locaties, and shown as area entities with correct relative shares and sizes. imagine that you have to deflate the ball and lay it flat on a table whilst still displating all the countries. the only way to do this is to cut the beach ball into pièces. in doing this you would find that the distanties between countries will be altereer an their shape distorted.
Mapping proces contains of?
- Establish purpose
- Define the scale
- Select features
- choose a method of representation
- generalize features
- adopt a map projection
- apply a spatial reference system
- annotate the map with keys, legends and text
the simplified view of the real world adopt by GIS is often termed a 'model'. What is a model?
A model is a synthesis of data
Resolution?
The size of the smallest recording unit, or
the smallest size of feature that can be mapped or measured.
What are the most important characteristics of aerial photographs?
- wide availability
-low costs
-wide area views
- time-freezing ability   
- high spectral and spatial resolution
-three-dimensional perspective
Data editing??
- detection and correction of errors
- reprojection
-transformation
-generalization
- edge matching and rubber sheeting
- updating of spatial database.
the 3 main types of data analysis are ?
1. data querying
2. data transformation & classification
3. data processing
what is the goal of classification?
the goal of classification is to assign each pixel in the image to a known class (supervised classification) or to a cluster (unsupervised classification).
how is unsupervised classification working?
spectral classes are grouped first, based solely on the numerical information in the data, and are then match by the analist to information classes.
knowing what is where, or what happens where and when, is not only a matter of curiosity, but can also be of critical importance to survive. give an example
-seasonal high water levels in rivers
-earthquake risk areas
-or crop damage by extreme drought