Summary Anatomy Midterm Flashcards

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Summary - Anatomy Midterm Flashcards

  • 1 Anatomy Midterm Flashcards

  • Anatomy
    the study of the structure of the body
  • Physiology
    the study of function: deals with the ways organisms perform vital activities
  • Structure determines...
    function
  • Levels of Organization
    1. Chemical Level
    2. Organelle Level
    3. Cellular Level
    4. Tissue Level
    5. Organ Level 
    6. Organ System Level
    7. Organism Level
  • Chemical Level --> Atom
    smallest stable units of matter that can combine to form molecules
  • Organelle Level --> cell parts
    functional properties determines by shape and atomic components
  • Cellular Level --> Cells
    smallest living units in the body --> functions depend on organelles (intracellular structures composed of complex molecules where each organelle has a specific function)
  • Tissue Level --> Tissue
    group of cells and cell products working together to perform one or more specific functions
  • Organ Level --> Organ
    2 or more tissues working to perform several functions
  • Organ System Level --> what happens here? / how many organ systems does the human body have?
    • Organs interact in organ systems
    • There are 11 organ systems in the human body
  • Organism Level --> what is an organism and what is its goal?
    • Organism - in this case - a human - is the highest level of organization
    • Its goal is to maintain life and health
  • Cell
    • basic unit of life
    • all cells are composed of matter
  • Cell Theory
    all living things have cells
  • Atom
    basic unit of matter
  • Homeostasis
    • maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment 
    • maintenance of a stable internal environment
    • proper/ normal levels
  • Negative Feedback Loop
    • change in the body that takes it out of normal range, and you respond by pulling it back into the normal range
    • eliminates change
    • negates change
  • Positive Feedback Loop
    • cascading change...the initial change causes more and more change
    • increases the change
    • EMERGENCY!!
  • 2 Examples of Positive Feedback Loops

    1. Blood Clotting - blood clotting chemicals, blood must clot fast or we will die - blood would clot 1 million times slower without a positive feedback loop
    2. Labor and Delivery - once it starts, the body wants to get the baby out really fast instead of keeping it in
  • Anterior
    front side
  • Posterior
    behind/ back side
  • Superior
    towards the top/ above
  • Inferior
    towards the bottom/ below
  • When using directional terms remember:
    • you are using them to describe one body part in relation to another body part
    • assume the body part is in anatomical position
  • Superficial
    closer to the body's surface
  • Deep
    further away from the surface
  • Medial
    towards the midline
  • Lateral
    Away from the midline
  • Prone
    person lying on their stomach
  • Supine
    person lying on their back --> supine = on your spine
  • Proximal
    closer to the trunk
  • Distal
    further away from the trunk
  • Anatomical Position
    an anatomical reference position; the body viewed from the anterior surface with the palms facing forward
  • Frontal Plane
    longitudinal plane that divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts
  • Sagittal Plane
    a plane that runs lengthwise or longitudinally down the length of the body, dividing it into left and right parts
  • Midsagittal (median)
    body is divided into equal pars
  • Transverse Plane
    a plane that runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts (cross sections are a common name for these parts)
  • Pleural Cavity
    • right and left pleural cavity 
    • surrounds the lungs
  • Pericardial Cavity
    surrounds the heart
  • Peritoneal Cavity
    most abdominopelvic organs
  • Mediastinum
    • the cavity between the lungs 
    • trachea, esophagus, and major vessels
    • heart is also in here
  • Enzymes - things to know
    1. made of proteins
    2. notice how they're named - "-ase" ending
    3. catalyst - biological catalyst
    4. lowering activation energy - without enzymes we wouldn't have life
    5. turnover rate - how often they can do their job - they can do it over and over and over again
  • Visceral Layer
    on the organ
  • Parietal Layer
    lines the body wall where the organ is
  • Serous Fluid
    watery fluid in between layers to reduce friction when organs move
  • Proton
    • positive charge (+)
    • cannot change number of protons or it will be a different element
  • Neutron
    • neutral charge (0)
    • can change the number of neutrons, but it is an isotope (radioactive)
  • Electron
    • negative charge (-)
    • can change the number of electrons, but it is called an ion
    • important because it's how an atom will behave
  • Valence Electrons
    outermost shell of electrons
  • Ionic Bond
    • transfer of electrons
    • metals and non-metals
  • Covalent Bond
    • sharing of electrons
    • 2 or more non-metals
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3 Phases of General Adaptation Syndrome
  1. alarm phase --> adrenaline
  2. resistance phase --> cortisol
  3. exhaustion --> can't maintain homeostasis, leads to deeath
Ehythropoietin
EPO
Calcitriol
works with parathyroid hormone to increase blood calcium levels
Glucogen
  • from alpha cells
  • raises blood sugar
Insulin
  • from beta cells
  • lowers blood sugar
Melatonin
controls circadian rhythm/ day and night cycle
Androgens
sex hormones
Stress Hormones
  • primarily cortisol
  • mobilizes energy/ mobilizes sugar
Aldosterone
reabsorb sodium in the kidneys (water follows solutes)
Parathyroid Hormone
takes calcium from bones to increase blood calcium levels