Summary Animal nutrition

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ISBN-10 0471903752 ISBN-13 9780471903758
384 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Animal nutrition". The author(s) of the book is/are Aron A Bondi. The ISBN of the book is 9780471903758 or 0471903752. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Animal nutrition

  • 1 general introduction

  • Specific feeding strategies
    - produce safe products, efficiently and at minimal costs
    - take into acount 
    • animal species
    • nature of production
    • draught (=trekkracht)
    • required intensity of production 
    • environmental factors
    • social factors
  • What is a diet?
    - material  which, after ingestion by animals, is capable of being digested, absorbed and utilized 
    - The derm 'diet' is used to describe edible material of nutrients 
    - plant and plant products form the major source of nutrients in animal nutrition
  • What is a nutrient?
    - any chemical element or compound that supports normal reproduction, growth, lactation or maintenance of life processes
    - six classes
    1. water
    2. carbohydrates
    3. lipids
    4. proteins
    5. vitamins
    6. minerals  
  • Energy
    - is required in the diet of all animals
    - can be provided by lipids, carbohydrates and the carbon skeleton of amino acids after removal of nitrogen
  • Nutrient requirements
    - depends on many factors
    • animal species
    • breed
    • life stage
    • level of production
    - can be divided into 2 main categories
    • maintenance requirements
    • requirements for production 
  • Maintenance requirements
    - Maintaining body weight and body composition
    - Maintaining physiological balances
    - Normal activities of organs and tissues for these purposes
    - Maintaining body temperature
    - Activities such as moving, eating, chewing, standing etc.
  • Requirements for production
    - Growth
    - Reproduction
    - Milk production
    - Egg production
    - Wool or fur production
  • Feeding values
    - have to be based on chemical composition of a diet, its digestibility and utilization of nutrients and other relevant characteristics
  • A reliable and manageable system to evaluate feedstuffs has to be
    - additive -> Most diets are composed of different feedstuffs and these contain different nutrients. The feeding value of the diet should equal the sum of the different components 
    - Reliable -> The feeding values should be as accurate as possible 
    - Easy to determine -> The determinations methods should be simple and fast so that they can be used for routine analyses. Data has to be available fast because the value of feedstuffs can differ between batches due to difference in harvesting circumstances, treatments and observation methods, breed of plants etc.
  • 2 Nutrient requirements

  • Essential nutrients
    - Amino acids
    - Fatty acids
    - minerals
    - vitamins
    - water
  • Non-essential nutrients
    - carbohydrates
  • Skeleton
    - provides attachment points for musculature and act as leverage for movements 
    - Bones may contain marrow that procudes blood cells
  • The integumentary system
    - comprising the skin and its appendages 
    - protects the body from damage
    - the body's first line of defence against infection, temperature change of other challenges to hemostasis
  • Digestive tract
    - includes the organs responsible for ingestion, digestion, absorption and defecation (=ontlasting)
    - provides the body with nutrients required during life
  • Cardiovascular system
    - responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones, white blood cells, antibodies and various other sustances 
    - involved in the regulation of body PH and temperature
  • Nervous system
    - responsible for the communication of information about an organism's surroundings and itself
    - the processing of this information and reactions in the body
  • Water content
    - The water content of the fat-free body mass (FFM) shows little variation among mammals
    - 2/3 of the water content is contained intracellular and the remainer is extracellular fluid
    - dissolved in this fluid are many organic molecules as well as inorganic molecules and ions
  • Liver + heart
    - play a vital role in the fetus 
    - contribute more body protein mass at birth than at later stages of development
    - Other systems also develop in utero, but their major growth occurs after birth 
    - At later stages of development ->
    • water content decreases
    • protein deposition slows down
    • fat deposition makes a greater contribution to weight gain     
  • In the winter
    - less food is available -> they eat more before winter -> store the excess of energy as bod fat
    - feed intake is high -> gatrointestinal organs are fully developed and functioning
    - the stored body fat is used for energy + body tissue degenerate such as the gastrointestinal tract to supply nutrients require for survival
  • Animal product composition
    - The mammary gland synthesizes all or most of the major milk constituents from various precursors which are selectively aborbed from the blood
    -  The gland is also actively and selectively transfers specific proteins, minerals and vitamins from the blood to the milk
  • Structural function
    - Muscle tissue is composed largely of protein and water
    - Proteins are componenets of cell membranes 
    - Fats have a structural role, with protein, making up the lipoproteins 
    - Proteins are the main constituents of connective tissue -> arteries, veins, ligament and tendons (=pezen)
    - Bone is composed of a cartilaginous protein matrix that becomes mineralized with calcium and phosphorus 
    - Carbohydrates are components of glycoproteins which are constistuents of connective tissue
    - Nutrients with major structural roles -> protein, calcium, phosphorus and to a lesser extent lipids and carbohydrates
  • - Sources of energy 1.0
    - Energy is used for locomotion and thermoregulation
    - The biochemical energy is required for maintenance and growth of living tissue
    - Animal cells are thermodynamically unstable and require contact expenditure of energy to keep them alife
    - There is a large requirement of energy for tissue maintenance
  • Sources of energie 2.0
    - Main nutrient for energy -> carbohydrates and lipids
    cellular metabolisme -> Glucose is metabolized in a series of biochemical reactions -> ATP is released -> used as fuel for other reactions
    - Major part of energy of carbohydrates is given off as heat -> proteins can be used but its more expensive than carbohydrates and lipids
    - Diets are balanced to try to minimize the use of protein for energy
  • Regulatory functions
    - Most of the required nutrients function in the regulation of cellular metabolism
    - Sodium, Potassium + chlorine -> function in the fluid balance to maintain concentrations and concentration in optimal conditions for metabolic reactions  - Vitamins and most minerals function as cofactors or activators of enzymes
    - Deficiencies of these nutrients result in decrease of the specific metabolic reaction -> development of characteristic deficiency symptoms
  • Essential nutrients
    - Omnivores and herbivores have the ability to synthesize the amino acid Taurin
    - Strict carnivores have lost this capability because their natural diet already contained sufficient amounts of Taurine
    - Ruminants doe not require any kind of essential amino acids in their diet
    - The microbial population in the rumen synthesizes amino acids from the Nitrogen present in the consumed grass and incorporate them in microbial protein
    - Cows and horses have no dietary requirements for B vitamins    
  • Amino acids
    - More than 200 amino acids, only 22 are found in most proteins and up to 10 are required in the diet 
    - The essential amino acids contain carbon skeletons that cant be synthesized by the animal itself
    - Non-essential can be synthesized when amine groups, carbon skeletons and enzymes responsible for transamination are present
    - amine group -> comes from the degradation of other amino acids or non-protein nitrogen
    - carbon skeleton -> comes from degradation of other amino acids or from intermediates from carbohydrate metabolism
  • Amino acids 2.0
    - Semi-essential -> These are amino acids which can be synthesized from essential amino acids 
    - cystine + tyrosine -> from methionine + phenylalanine
    - amino acids are the monomeric unit from which proteins are made
    - important energy source
    - precursors of other biologically important compounds
  • Amino acids 3.0
    - In all tisue there is a continuous protein synthesis and breakdown -> The net protein synthesis has the biggest effect on amino acid requirements 
    - The requirement for digestible amino acids by producing animals is almost completely determined by the amino acid composition of the synthesized product + by the level of production
    - Maintenance level -> the rate of the protein synthesis and the protein breakdown are equal
  • Arginine
    - Required in the diet of some species for maximum growth
    - Birds dont have an active urea cycle -> require arginine in the diet
    - in most species -> adults do not require dietary arginine for the maintenance of the body
  • Chemical and physical structure (amino acid)
    - Basic structure -> R-COOH(NH2)
    - amino group -> NH2-group bound to the alpha-C-atom
    - Presence of N in all amino acids -> proximate analysis of protein
    - N-content -> 16%
    - Crude protein -> 6.25*N-content
    - Crude protein milk products -> 6.38*N-content
  • Metabolisme amino acids
    - Main factors determining the characteristics -> The length of the chain and the order of arrangements of amino acids within the chain
    - primary structure -> The sequence of amino acids along the polypeptide chain of a protein
    - secondary structure -> refers to the conformation of the chain of amino acids resulting from the formation of hydrogen bounds between the amino and carbolyn groups of adjacent amino acids     
    - tertiary structure -> how the chains of the secondary structure further interact through R groups of the amino acid residues -> Folding and bending of the polypeptide chain
    - The shape of these proteins are stabilized by hydrogen bonds and electrostatic or salt bonds
  • Metabolism AA 2.0
    - All necessary amino acids should be present for the synthesis of proteins
    - The amino acid that is present below adequate amounts -> limiting amino acid
    - The amino acids that are there can be used for energy or synthesis of other proteins
    - Carbon skeleton is being utilized as energy source, the NH4+ is exctreted as urea (Mammals), uric acid (birds) or via the gills as ammonia (fish)
  • Classification of proteins
    - They can all be classifief on the basis of their shape, solubility in water, salt, acids, bases and alcohol + other special characteristics
    1. Globular proteinsSoluble in water, dilute acids or in alcohol
    2. Albumins = soluble in water
    3. Globulins = Soluble in dilute neutral solutions of salt, bases and acids
    4. Glutelins = soluble in dilute acids or bases
    5. prolamines = soluble in 70-80% ethanol
    6. histones = soluble in water
    7. protamines = soluble in water
    8. Fibrous proteins = insoluble in water, resistant to digestive enzymes
    9. collagens = can be converted to gelatin
    10. elastins = similar to collagens but cannot be converted to gelatin 
    11. keratins = insoluble in water, resistant to digestive enzymes, contain up to 15% cystine
    12. Conjugated proteins = proteins that contain a wild array of compounds of a non-protein nature 
  • Proteins
    - high molecular compounds which can vary widely
    - major component of most tissues in the body, second only to water
    - Most are present as components of cell membranes, in muscle, skin, hair and hooves
    - Dry matter of bone is over 1/3 protein
    - Because of the constant turnover -> protein is needed for growth and maintenance 
    - Ruminants have no need to set a dietary essential amino acid requirement because the amino acids are obtained from the microbial population in the rumen
  • Fatty acids
    - Mammals cannot synthesize fatty acids with double bonds closer than carbon atom 9 from the terminal methyl group
    - cannot be synthesized by animal tissue -> linoleic and alpha-linolenic
  • Funtion fatty acids
    - The exact function are not known but 2 probably vital areas are
    1. They are an intergral part of the lipid-protein structure of cell membranes
    2. They appear to play an important role in the regulation of release of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
    -  Dermatitis and other abnormailities have been traced to deficiencies of certrain fatty acids in non-ruminant species
  • Function of lipids
    - source of essential fatty acids
    - supplying energy for normal maintenance and productive functions  
    - Serving as a carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K 

    - No dietary requirements exists for lipids 
    - except for essential fatty acids -> because of their role as a solvent in falt soluble vitamin absorption
    - fat-free diets may develop fat-soluble vitamin defficiencies     
  • Chemical and physical structure
    - Chains of C-atoms ranging from 2 to 24 or more with a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the end of each chain
    - general structure -> RCOOH
    - saturated fatty acids -> no double bond + has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons
    - unsaturated fatty acids -> there is a least a single double bond 
    - fatty acids can occur as the sis or trans isomer     
  • Chemical and physical structure 2.0 FA
    - Most found are straight-chained and contain an even number of carbons
    - Branched-chain fatty acids and those with an odd number of carbons are more common in micro-organisms
    - Tissues of ruminants contain relatively large amounts of these fatty acids -> as a result of rumen fermentation and the subsequent absorption of these microbially derived acids
  • Metabolism of faty acids
    - 3 major sites of biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides -> liver, body fat and mammary glands 
    - The liver is the central organ for lipid interconversion and metabolism 
    - role of the liver:
    • synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrates
    • synthesis of fatty acids from lipogenic amino acids
    • sytnhesis of cholesterol from acetyl-co-A
    • synthesis of phospholipids
    • synthesis of lipoproteins
    • synthesis of ketone bodies
    • degradation of fatty acids
    • degradation of phospholipids
    • removal of phospholipids and cholesterol from blood
    • lengthening and shortering of fatty acids
    • saturating and desaturating of fatty acids
    • control of depot lipid storage
    • storage of liver lipids 
  • Metabolism of fatty acids 2.0
    - Most fatty acids in animal tissue are esterified to a backbone glycerol to form triglycerides
    - glycerol = alcohol component of all triglycerides common in animal and plant tissues
    - biosynthesis of triglycerides
    1. fatty acid acetyl-Co-A + alpha-glycerol phosphate -> form a phospholid -> diglyceride -> hence to a triglyceride
    2. or by fatty acyl-Co-A reacting with a monoglyceride -> diglyceride ->hence triglyceride  
    - Mono- di- and triglycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty acids 
    - ester = formed by the reaction of an alcohol with an organic acid 
       
  • Metabolism of fatty acids 3.0
    - physical and chemical properties by -> composition in a triglyceride, the chain length and degree of saturation
    - Degree of 'softness' depends on number of double bonds and chain length
    - if chain length increases -> melting point increases
    - if the number of double bonds increase -> melting point decreases
  • Sterol
    - The best known and most abundant is cholesterol
    - other important sterols -> ergosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, bile acids, androgen, estrogens and progesterone
  • Lipid constituents
    - The most important in animal nutrition -> fatty acids, glycerol, mono- di- and triaclyglycerols and phospholipids 
    - Glycolipids, lipoproteins and sterols are very important in metabolism but are present in the body in much lower amounts than triglycerides (the main storage form of energy in the animal body)
  • Lipoproteins
    - play a key role in transport of triglycerides, cholesterol and other lipids via the blood from one organ system to another for metabolism and processing
  • Lipids
    - organic compounds that are soluble in certain organic solvents, but insoluble in water 
    - classification of lipids of importance in nutrition
    1. simple lipids -> esters of fatty acids and glycerol or some other alcohol. Fats, oils and waxes are simple lipids. Fats and oils are esters of fatty acids with glycerol and waxes are esters of fatty acids with alcohol 
    2. compound lipids -> Esters of fatty acids containing non-lipid groups in addition to an alcohol and fatty acid. Compound lipids include phospholipids, glycolipids and lipoproteins  
  • Storage sites
    - Triglycerides can be stored by all tisues of the body
    - adipose tissues -> fat depots + are the most notable storage sites
    - adipose tissue is capable of synthesizing fat from carbohydrates + oxidation of fatty acids
    - stored triglycerides are a ready source of energy -> continuous deposition and mobilization 
    - Energy intake in excess of current needs results in a net deposition of triglycerides (fattening)
    - energy intake less than current need results in a net loss of triglycerides
  • Depot fat of ruminants
    - less responsive to dietary fatty acid composition because of the action of the rumen microflora 
    - also characterized by odd-length and branched-chin fatty acids -> derived from volatile fatty acids (VFA) + presence of trans isomers 
    - trans isomers result from microbial metabolism of dietary unsaturated fatty acids    
  • Lipolysis
    - The degradation of adipose tissue
    - lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the major enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of circulating triglycerides in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins 
    - LPL is synthesized in many tissues of the body in most animals
    - secreted to the cell surface and transported to the cappilary endothelial surface
    - The activity of LPL in the capillary bed of a tissue is reflected in the movement of fatty acids to that tissue
    - In animals in the fed state -> activity in adipose tissue is high
    - fasted animals -> the activity is low
    - lypolysis is stimulated by a number of hormones and synthetic beta-adrenergic agonists 
    - lipolysis is inhibited in some mammals by receptors on the adipocyte surface -> alpha adrenegic receptors
    - The ultimate fat content of the animal body depends on the net balance of lipogenesis and lipolysis at the cellular and subcellular level
  • Minerals
    - involved in physiological roles such as acid-base balance, formation of structural components, enzymatic co-factors and energy transfer
    - 22 minerals are known to be essential
    - 7 are called major or macronutrient minerals
    1. Calicum
    2. Phosphorus
    3. Patassium
    4. Sodium
    5. Chlorine
    6. Magnesium
    7. Sulphur
    - 15 are known as micro elements
    1. Iron
    2. Iodine
    3. Zinc
    4. Copper
    5. Manganese
    6. Cobalt
    7. Molybdenum
    8. Selenium
    9. Chromium
    10. Tin
    11. Vanadium
    12. Fluorine
    13. Silicon
    14. Nickel
    15. Arsenic
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