Summary Artikelen capturing value from innovation 2016

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Summary - Artikelen capturing value from innovation 2016

  • 1 Giuri et al. (2007) "Inventors and invention processes in Europe: Results from the PatVal-EU survey"

  • Where does this paper provide more information about?
    The characteristics of European inventors, the sources of their knowledge, the importance of formal and informal collaborations, the motivations to invent and the actual use and economic value of the patents
  • What a the convenient feature of patents?
    They resemble invention counts and they have been well documentented, they can combine different indicators, and are organized into databases
  • What are the shortcomings of patents?
    Patents relate to a certain type of inventions and there are differences across firms, industries and countries in the precision with which patents measure innovation output.
  • Where is practically no information about what is not in the patent files available?
    Information about inventors, the nature of the research or other processes that gave rise to the invention.
  • What is the PatVal's main objective?
    Collect information about patents and the underlying invention process on issues that had not previously been explored in depth because of the lack of information in the patent documents.
  • On which three areas does this paper focus?
    1. Inventors
    2. Research collaborations and spillovers
    3. Use and economic value of the patents
  • What do the results suggest about the female inventors?
    The share of female inventors is remarkably low. Female participation in science and engineering declines along the career path
  • What is the average age of the inventors studied?
    45
  • What does this average age suggest?
    That the prodution of a patent occurs when people are no longer young researchers
  • If innovation is a process that occurs when people have completed the initial stages of their careers, then women are increasingly left out, consistent with observed academic data in which they are gradually more and more under-represented in senior positions
  • Is there a positive correlation between researchers' productivity and their mobility?
    Yes.
  • Inter-firm and intra-firm mobility serve as a mechanism for creating an accurate match of employee and employer characteristics.
  • Why does mobility have a positive impact on inventive output?
    Patents of mobile inventors receive more citations
  • Movers are more productive than non-moving inventors, however ....
    more productive inventors are less likely to move.
  • What are the six motivations identified of inventors to invent?
    1. Monetary rewards
    2. Career advances and opportunities for new/better jobs
    3. Prestige/reputation
    4. Inventions increase performance of the organization the inventor works for
    5. Statisfaction to show that something is technically possible
    6. Benefits in terms of working conditions as a reward by employer
  • How can motivations be distinguished?
    • Social and personal motivations
    • Monetary rewards and career advances
  • Which motivations are on average more important?
    Social and personal motivations
  • What are three similarities between inventors/scientists?
    1. As human capital becomes more important, the owners of this asset, whether scientist or inventor, care about things that enhance the perception of the asset's value. Thus prestige and reputation are important
    2. An individual benefits from the growth of the organization in which he works because this favors his own prestige, growth or visibility as well
    3. Unlike other professions, creativity, the search for knowledge, and the ability to show that something is possible, can be personally enticing.
  • What are different sources of knowledge that firms and scientists use for invention and innovation?
    • Creation of formal and informal networks of collaboration among researchers or institutions
    • Knowledge spillovers: imply access to external knowledge
  • When are knowledge spillovers more intense?
    When there is geographical proximity
  • Which industries benefit to a greater extend from co-location and knowledge spillovers?
    Skilled- and R&D-intensive industries
  • Patented invention is typically the result of teamwork
  • The patent document does not indicate whether the collaborations are among inventors belonging to the same or different organizations, or give detail of the type of collaboration they establish. Next to that, the data on co-patenting may be biased towards specific technologies.
  • What do the results of the PatVal survey show about collaborations?
    Firms tend to internalize the invention process, and to mostly coordinate internally the production of invention and transfer of knowledge among inventors. 
  • Who do exhibit a higher share of collaborative patents? Firms or research institutions and universities?
    Firms, and particularly large firms, exhibit a lower share of collaborative patents compared to research institutions and universities.
  • What are four types of interactions identified in the development of patent inventions?
    1. Interactions with people in the inventor’s organization, and geographically close (who could be reached in less than an hour);
    2. Interactions with people in the inventor’s organization, and geographically distant (more than 1 h distant);
    3. Interactions with people not in the inventor’s organization, and geographically close;
    4. Interactions with people not in the inventor’s organization, and geographically distant.
  • What do the results show about geographical proximity?
    Interactions in the same organization is more important than interactions with people in other organizations, especially when they are geographically close
  • When are geographically localized spillovers more important?
    In technological fields featuring small technology-intensive companies organized in clusters.
  • Which sources of knowledge are identified?
    1. Competitors
    2. Suppliers
    3. Customers
    4. Other patents
    5. Scientific literature
    6. Participation in conferences and workshops
    7. University and public research labs
  • Who are the most important source of knowledge for invention processes?
    Customers, followed by the patent and scientific literature
  • Who are the least important source of knowledge?
    University and public research labs are the least important source of knowledge because the distance between academic inventions and commercial patented inventions is large in most industries. 
  • The high score of scientific literature suggests that the more academic knowledge is not unimportant, but the links with universities or public research labs require effort and investment in establishing relationships. By contrast, scientific literature is readily available provided that one has the required absorptive capacity. The scientific literature provides a relatively good access to relevant knowledge, and there is not much need for the more costly investments of searching for or linking to research labs. 
  • Which six uses of patents are identified?
    1. Internal use
    2. Licensing
    3. Cross-licensing
    4. Licensing and use
    5. Blocking patents
    6. Sleeping patents
  • What is meant with internal use?
    The patent is exploited internally for commercial or industrial purposes; it can be used in a production process or it can be incorporated in a product
  • What is meant with licensing?
    The patent is not used internally by the applicant, but it is licensed out to another party
  • What is meant with cross-licensing?
    The patent is licensed to another party in exchange for another patented invention
  • What is meant with licensing and use?
    The patent is both licensed to another party and used internally by the applicant organization
  • What is meant with a blocking patent?
    The patent is used neither internally nor for licensing, and was applied for to block competitors
  • What is meant with sleeping patents?
    The patent is not employed in any of the uses described above. It may still have option value to the holder as an asset protecting a completely different technical approach, but it unfolds no blocking effect w.r.t. competitors.
  • Which use of patents in frequently used?
    Half of the patents are exploited by the applicant organization for industrial and commercial purposes. 36% are not used. Half of these are blocking and the other half are sleeping patents. Only 6% is licensed and 4% are both licensed and internally used. 3% are used in cross-licensing agreements. 
  • While medium firms have a higher rate of internal use and partly a higher rate of licensing, small firms have a slightly higher rate of internal use than large firms, and a much higher rate of licensing. Overall, the small firms license out 26% of their patents and leave 18% unused, which provides a striking contrast to large firms which license out only 10% and leave 40% of their patents unused. 
  • What is the relation between entrepreneurship and patents?
    Patents may be associated with the creation of new firms in their technology-based businesses and may contribute to more competition and more innovation. A patent (or a group of patents) often represents the key element around which a start-up sets its entire business. 
  • Patents can help find financing or corporate partners because they provide an independent assessment of the value of the company’s competencies. Also when the property rights are strong and well enforced, new companies are more likely to start up because they can specialize in developing the technology and selling it to other firms. 
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Where does this paper provide more information about?
The characteristics of European inventors, the sources of their knowledge, the importance of formal and informal collaborations, the motivations to invent and the actual use and economic value of the patents
What is scenario 4?
In this quadrant, there is no effective mechanism for charging individual end-users due to ready availability of media files over the Internet, and media companies need to change their business model quickly and dramatically because government subsidies of the type discussed in Scenario #2 are not available. It is critical for the industry to maintain its core competencies in discovering and promoting artists; arranging for the necessary repertoire of musicians, writers, and actors; and providing high-quality production facilities.
 
The authors suggest that such firms enter into alliances with management consulting firms and collaborate with technology companies that have a thorough understanding of the digital marketplace to identify their future business models and organize towards capturing new business opportunities arising from emerging technologies. Only those that can successfully do this will likely survive.
What is scenario 3?
Under this scenario, the industry retains its ability to charge non-commercial end-users (as in Scenario #1), but its current business model must change dramatically to cater to new public tastes in accessing and using media products. The new business model must permit customers to locate, sample, and share music online and play it at any time on any device, and it must also provide fans with the ability to access information on artists and musical compositions and share their preferences and opinions with peers.
 
Under this scenario, the music industry would continue to invest in better DRM technologies to prevent illegal copying and distribution and water- marking to identify sources of illegal copies as well as its efforts to reform copyright law and strengthen enforcement.
What is scenario 2?
Here, copyright protection for non-commercial purposes is effectively lost due to availability of free music and video files over the Internet, and they become “public goods”—i.e., while artists and media companies expend resources in producing music and motion pictures, there is no market mechanism to obtain fair payment from individual customers given their ability to copy and distribute digital files worldwide, virtually without cost. In this situation, payment to content providers must come from general government revenues and/or levies on users and beneficiaries. This strategy would decriminalize file-sharing activity while providing a mechanism for paying content producers and owners in a manner that causes minimal disruption in the media industry.
What is senario 1?
This is the base scenario, where the media industry is successful in protecting its intellectual capital, which enables it to essentially maintain its current business model. We do not necessarily assume that Internet piracy is fully controlled. Rather, we posit that the industry is able to retain its high-value customers through a combination of activities designed to increase the cost of illegal file sharing, such as tightening legislation and enforcement as well as incorporating technology into digital files that degrades copies and makes duplication harder. In this scenario, the media industry will continue its efforts towards reforming and enforcing copyright laws, invest in DRM and watermarking technologies, educate the public on copyright law and build support for anti-piracy measures, develop portals that facilitate free sampling and online distribution, and tap new revenue streams that become viable with lower distribution costs, all while maintaining control of both production and distribution of artistic content.
What is the conclusion of the authors?
The media industry should continue current legal strategies against unauthorized file sharing. Besides that, the industry should discover new ways of monetizing its products to create values.
What is on the horizontal/vertical axis?
Horizontal: Public Policy
Vertical: Technological Change
What about business models?
Need to consider new business models to benefit from emerging technology and cater to changing customer tastes 
What about education?
Majority of people do not view file-sharing as criminal due to two reasons
  • People grew up in a society where recording music and videos was legal
  • Copyright violators tend to believe in the free flow of information and are suspicious of regulations and bureaucracies
What about enforcement?
  • While the industry has been successful in shutting down several P2P networks, its strategy has been largely unsuccessful in deterring illegal file sharing
  • Authors recommend assistance of ISP in curbing exchange of copyright-protected files (blocking access to illegal websites, warnings for users, discontinuing (or slowing down) internet access)