Summary Basics of Social Research: Pearson New International Edition Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

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ISBN-10 1292020342 ISBN-13 9781292020341
408 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Basics of Social Research: Pearson New International Edition Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches". The author(s) of the book is/are Lawrence W Neuman. The ISBN of the book is 9781292020341 or 1292020342. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Basics of Social Research: Pearson New International Edition Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

  • 1.1 Introduction

  • Why do we do social research?
    • To learn something new about the world.
    • To carefully document our guesses, hunches, theories or beliefs about it.
    • To understand how the social world works.  
  • How do we produce knowledge in the process of social research?
    By combining principles, outlooks and ideas with a collection of specific practices, techniques and strategies.
  • 1.2 Alternatives to Social Research

  • What is the biggest difference between research-based knowledge and the alternatives?
    Research-based knowledge has fewer flaws and avoids common mistakes.
  • 1.2.1 Authority

  • When are you relying on authority as a basis for knowledge?
    When you accept something as true because someone in a position of authority says it is true or because it appears in a authoritative outlet.
  • What are the three limitations of relying on authority?
    1. It is easy to overestimate the expertise of others. 
    2. Authorities may not agree, and not all authorities are equally dependable. 
    3. Authorities may speak on fields which they know little about. 
  • Name two issues of relying on authority.
    • Misuse of authority.
    • Too much reliance on authorities can be dangerous to a democratic society. 
  • 1.2.2 Tradition

  • Why do we accept tradition as a case of authority?
    Because it is the way things have always been.
  • Why do people sometimes cling to traditional knowledge without understanding?
    Because they assume that if something may have worked or been true in the past, it will continue to be true.
  • 1.2.3 Common sense

  • What is gaining knowledge through common sense?
    Telying on what everyone knwos and waht ''just makes sense''.
  • Name two downsides of using common sense to gain knowledge.
    • It allows logical fallacies to slip into thinking. 
    • It contains contradictory ideas that often go unnoticed because people use the ideas at different times.
  • 1.2.4 Media Distortion

  • What are some things causing disortion?
    • Ignorance, relying on authority, tradition and common sense. 
    • The common goal of media is to entertain, and not to represent reality accurately. 
  • What is the downsides of mass media?
    • It tends to perpetuate a culture's misconceptions and myths.
    • It can create a belief that a serious problem exists when it may not. 
  • Why do advocacy groups use the media?
    To win public support for their cause.
  • 1.2.5 Personal Experience

  • How doe we gain knowledge through personal experience?
    By things that happen to us, when we see or experience it,  we tend to accept it as true.
  • What are the disadvantages of personal experience?
    • An optical illusion or mirage can orrcur. 
    • Overgeneralization
    • Selective observation
    • Premature closure
    • Halo effect
  • What is the definition of overgeneralization?
    When evidence supports your belief, but you falsely assume that it applies to most situations too.
  • What is selective observation?
    When we take special notice of some people or events and tend to seek out evidence that confirms what we already believe and ignore contradictory information.
  • What is premature closure?
    We feel we have the answer and do not need to listen, seek information, or raise questions any longer.
  • What is the halo effect?
    When we overgeneralize from a highly positive or prestigious source and let its strong reputation or prestige ''rub off'' onto other areas.
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Latest added flashcards

Why is the public confused and distrusts surveys?
Because the media report both biased, misleading survey results and rigorous, professional survey results with little distinction.
What is a pseudosurvey?
When someone who has little or no real interest in learning information from a respondent uses the survey fromat to try to persuade someone to do something.
What are the researchers responsibilities concerning ethics?
Treat all respondents with dignity and do what you can to reduce anxiety or discomfort. You are also responsible for protecting the confidentiality of data.
What are the disadvantages of computer-assisted telephone interviewing?
  • Investment in computer equipments
  • Knowledge of computers
  • Computer cannot substitute for a good understanding of the survey method or an appreciation of its limitations. 
What are the advantages of computer-assisted telephone interviewing?
  • Speeds interviewing
  • Reduces interview errors
  • Eliminates the separate step of entering information into a computer
  • Speeds data processing
What is computer-assisted telephone interviewing?
THe interviewre sits in front of a comuter and makes calls
What do you need to do in order to reduce interviewer bias?
Note the race and gender of both interviewers and respondents.
What is the task of supervisors?
They are familiar with the area, assist with problems, oversee the interviewers, and ensure that work is completed on time.
What doe courses include?
Lectures and reading, observation of expert interviewers, mock interviews in the office and in the field that are recorded and cirtiqued, many practice interviews and role playing.
What is essential for consistent high-quality performance?
Adequate pay and good supervision.