Summary begrippen companion animals

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Summary - begrippen companion animals

  • 1 H1 + 2

  • Anthropomorphism
    = humanization of animals
    = attribution of human traits, emotions and intentions to non-human entities
  • Domestication/taming
    Domestication = process, long lasting, genetics
    taming = short time
  • 4 characteristics
    1. Breeding is under human control
    2. provides a product or service useful to man
    3. it is tame
    4. it has been selected away from the wild type 
  • Pathways
    - commensal pathway
    • habituation > partnership > directed breeding
    • dogs / cats
    - prey pathway
    • prey > game management > herd management > directed breeding
    • goats
    - directed pathway
    • prey/competitor > human control > directed breeding 
    • more recently and over shorter time than prey pathway
    • donkey  
  • Attachment
    - an enduring pshychological bond
    - mother-infant bond
    - care giving or protecting
  • Primary/basis
    Interest, fear, joy, anger, sadness
    - most reported
  • Secondary, self-conscious
    - jealousy, pride
  • Secondary, self conscious evaluative
    - guilt, shame, embarrassment
  • Biophilia
    - people have an innate propensity to affiliate with and be attracted by other animals and living things 
    - evoluationary, attention to animals would enhance an individual's changes of survival, because animals act as an environmental sentinel indicating safety or danger
  • Social support hypothesis
    - companion animals provide social support and social interactions
    - reduce loneliness/isolation, lessen fear, reduce stress
    - present pet reduces heart rateand systolic blood pressure 
    - feel good hormones (oxytocin)
  • Social cognition
    - encoding, storage, retrieval and processing of information about conspecifics
  • Reflextive
    - unintentional, automatic, low effort, rapid, perceptually driven, implicit
  • Reflective
    - intentional, explicit, controlled, high effort, slow, analytic
  • Self-other matching
    - the observation of another's behaviour causes the observer's behaviour te correspond
  • Motor resonance
    - activation of common mechanism for observed and executed actions (reflexive animals)
  • Social learning
    - copying of goal directed behaviour (movements)
  • Emulation
    - copying of end goal (result)
  • Imitation
    - copying movement and end goals
    - unnecessary movements
  • Inferior parietal lobule (PFG)
    - mirror neurons
    - might be used by encodign the intentions of another
  • Gaze following
    - match own visual perception to that of others 
    - head and eye movements
    - even when field of sight is partly blocked
  • Perspective taking
    - grasp that anothers perceptual knowledge can differ from one's own
  • Theory of mind (ToM)
    - grasp that anothers representational mental states can differ from ones own
  • Emotional contagion
    - phenomenon of having one person's emotions and related behaviors directly trigger similar emotions and behaviors in other people.
  • Cognitive empathy
    - understanding of another indiviual's emotional state
    - yawn contagion, pupil size, stronger facial mimicry
  • Secure-bas effect
    - when owner is around
    - no barking and exploring of the environment
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