Summary Biology

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Summary - Biology

  • 1 Biology

  • A scientist wants to see how the concentration of CO2 affects the rate of glucose production in plants. 2 plants are left if the open air, 2 plants are placed in a greenhouse to trap CO2 and 2 plants are in a greenhouse with dry ice (a source of CO2)

    What is the Control Group?
    2 plants left in the open air
  • A scientist wants to see how the concentration of CO2 affects the rate of glucose production in plants. 2 plants are left in the open air, 2 plants are placed in a greenhouse to trap CO2 and 2 plants are in a greenhouse with dry ice (a source of CO2)

    What is the Independent Variable?
    2 plants placed in greenhouse to trap CO2 and 2 plants in greenhouse with dry ice
  • A scientist wants to see how the concentration of CO2 affects the rate of glucose production in plants. 2 plants are left in the open air, 2 plants are placed in a greenhouse to trap CO2 and 2 plants are in a greenhouse with dry ice (a source of CO2)

    What is the Dependent Variable?
    rate of glucose production
  • A scientist wants to see how the concentration of CO2 affects the rate of glucose production in plants. 2 plants are left in the open air, 2 plants are placed in a greenhouse to trap CO2 and 2 plants are in a greenhouse with dry ice (a source of CO2)

    What is the X-Axis?
    2 plants placed in greenhouse to trap CO2 and plants in greenhouse with dry ice
  • A scientist wants to see how the concentration of CO2 affects the rate of glucose production in plants. 2 plants are left in the open air, 2 plants are placed in a greenhouse to trap CO2 and 2 plants are in a greenhouse with dry ice (a source of CO2)

    What is the Y-Axis?
    rate of glucose production
  • What axis is IV (independent variable) on?
    X-Axis
  • What axis is DV (dependent variable) on?
    Y-Axis
  • Define:
    Characteristics of Life
    Characteristics that all living things exhibit
  • Name the characteristics of life.
    Cellular organization
    Reproduction
    Metabolism
    Homeostasis
    Heredity
    Response to stimuli
    Growth and development
    Evolutionary adaptation
  • Name the levels of organization
    Cells  > Tissues > Organs > Systems > Organisms
  • Define:

    Unicellular
    One- celled
  • Define:  

    Multicellular
    many celled with levels of organization (cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms)
  • Offsprings are genetic clone of parent
    Asexual reproduction
  • Offsprings have genetic variation from parents
    Sexual reproduction
  • What kind of populations seem to be more diverse?
    Large populations
  • Make their own food
    Autotrophs (photosynthesis / chemo-synthesis)
  • Eat other organisms for food
    Heterotrophs
  • Maintenance or regulation of body conditions such as body temperature, blood sugar level, water balance
    Homeostasis
  • DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid - makes up genes and is the genetic material that codes for proteins of all organisms. The genetic code is "universal"
    Heredity
  • Responding the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment are key to survival
    Response to stimuli
  • Define:

    Growth
    Increase in the amount of living matter either by cell division or cell enlargement
  • Define:

    Development
    any change from conception to death - embryotic, puberty, aging
  • Define:

    Adaptations
    structures, behaviors, or processes that aid in an organisms survival are passed from parent to offspring
  • How are macromolecules built?
    Dehydration synthesis and polymerization
  • All metabolism is controlled by the action of:
    Enzymes
  • Composed of monosaccharides primarily glucose
    Carbohydrates
  • Composed of fatty acids joined to glycerol and sometimes phosphate groups, can also include the steriods
    Lipids
  • Composed of amino acids (20 different types) - Do most of the work and are major structural components
    Proteins
  • Composed of nucleotides - either DNA, RNA, and ATP
    Nucleic Acids
  • Proteins that function to speed up chemical reactions in the cell
    Enzymes
  • How can enzymes be damaged?
    Temperature and pH extremes
  • Stored as starch in plants and turns iodine purple/black
    Carbohydrates
  • Primary source of energy
    Carbohydrates
  • Long term energy storage and binds with Sudan red
    Lipids
  • Gives us our hereditary
    Nucleic acids
  • Turns copper sulfate from blue to purple
    Proteins
  • What are the 3 parts of cell theory?
    Cells are the basic unit of life.
    Cells come from existing cells.
    All organisms are composed of cells.
  • ___ are the basic unit of life.
    Cells
  • Where do cells come from?
    Existing cells
  • All organisms are composed of ___.
    Cells.
  • Life begins as a fertilized egg (___)
    Zygote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote? 

    Complex
    Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote?

    Nucleus
    Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote?

    Organelles
    Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote?

    Membrane bound structures
    Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote?

    Plants, animals, protists and fungus
    Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote?

    Simple
    Prokaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote?

    Small
    Prokaryote
  • Eukaryote or Prokaryote? 

    No organelles
    Prokaryote
  • Eukaryote of Prokaryote?

    No nucleus
    Prokaryote
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Food chains and webs and matter recycling
Ecosystem levels
Exponential (J-shape) of logistic (S-shape)
Population growth
The study of interactions between organisms and the environment
Ecology
Define translation
The process of building a protein by matching Codons in mRNA to anticodons of tRNA
Define transcription
The process of making RNA from DNA
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Punnett square
Single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
Protist
The formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
Protein synthesis
Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
Protein
First and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides ot the nucleus
Prophase