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Summary - Biology
1 Breathing and Respiration
Structure of the respiratory systemLarynx- Voice box
trachea- Main air passage
bronchus- tube that leads directly to the lung
bronchioles- narrow and branching to carry air to different parts of lung
alveoli- where gaseous exchange takes place.
pleural membrane- surround lungs and prevent from rubbing against ribs.
pleural calvitiy- contains lubricating fluid
ribs- protect hearts and lungs
intercostal muscle- contract to raise and lower ribs during breathing
diaphragm- muscle raises and lowers to help air move in and out lungs
Five properties of a good respiratory system?Have a large surface area- tennis court alveoli- more oxygen can pass to blood.
Be thin- alveoli walls 1 cell thick- so gasses can diffuse through.
Have a good blood supply- covered in capillaries- oxygen can easily get into blood cells.
Be moist- covered in wet sticky mucus- gases can dissolve and diffuse easily across.
Be ventilated- alveoli fill when we breathe- otherwise no oxygen would get in from outside world.
Alveoli process1- deoxgenated blood arrives
2- high concentration of oxygen in alveoli and low conc of oxygen in red blood cells
3- high conc of carbon dioxide in blood and low in alveolus
4- carbon dioxide diffuses and water vapour diffuses into alveolus while oxygen diffuses out into blood.
5- oxygenated blood leaves alveolus.
Respirationis an enzyme controlled process that takes place inside the mitochondria to produce energy.
Anaerobic respirationGlucose --> lactic acid + energy
What is energy for respiration used for in plantsActive transport of minerals into the plant roots
building new materials
What is the energy from respiration used for in animals?making muscles contract
making new substances
What are the disadvantages of anaerobic respirationinefficient
What are the 5 effects of exercise on the body?You breathe faster
you breathe deeper
your heart beats faster
stroke volume increases
What happens during exercise?The muscles glycogen stores quickly run out and the muscles need to be supplied with more oxygen and glucose for respiration
You breathe faster to get more oxygen in and co2 and water out.
arteries supplying blood dilate , heart and stroke volume increase.
this all means more energy can be created and more waste disposed of
What is the effect on training on athletic performance?Muscles get stronger
Stroke volume increases
lung capacity increases
takes longer to switch to anaerobic respiration
Yeast anaerobic equationglucose --> co2 + ethanol + energy
What is the effect of temperature on respiration rate in yeast?As the temp increases, so does the rate of anaerobic respiration until it reaches a peak. Above this temp the rate of rest declines as respiration is an enzyme controlled reaction. As temp increases enzymes work more efficiently up to an optimum temp. Above this temp, the enzymes are denatured and resp stops.
Aerobic Equationglucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy
What are the 6 adaptations of predatorsEyes on the front of their head (3D)
What are the 7 adaptations of preyEyes on the side of their head (360)
How does size affect heat generated?Heat is generated by cells. The more cells, the more heat. The bigger the animal, the larger the amount of cells.
How does surface area affect heat lost?Heat is lost through the skin surface of the animal so animals with a larger surface area: volume (small animals) will lose more heat than those with a small surface area: volume (large animals)
How do you calculate SA:VSA/V
What SA:V do large and small animals have?Large-small
What SA :V are advantages in different climatesWarm- large SA:V- small
Cold- small SA:V- warm
What are extremophiles?Organisms that are adapted to live in extreme conditions . E.g. Alkaline water, acid water, very hot water, very cold water, high pressure, very dry.
How do extremophiles survive?They have specialised adaptations e.g. Micro-organisms in hot springs have special enzymes to control metabolism
What kind of organisms are extremophiles?Mostly micro organisms, however there are a few others
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