Summary Biology

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Summary - Biology

  • 1 Breathing and Respiration

  • Structure of the respiratory system
    Larynx- Voice box
    trachea- Main air passage
    bronchus- tube that leads directly to the lung
    bronchioles- narrow and branching to carry air to different parts of lung
    alveoli- where gaseous exchange takes place.
    pleural membrane- surround lungs and prevent from rubbing against ribs.
    pleural calvitiy- contains lubricating fluid
    ribs- protect hearts and lungs
    intercostal muscle- contract to raise and lower ribs during breathing
    diaphragm- muscle raises and lowers to help air move in and out lungs
  • Five properties of a good respiratory system?
    Have a large surface area- tennis court alveoli- more oxygen can pass to blood.
    Be thin- alveoli walls 1 cell thick- so gasses can diffuse through.
    Have a good blood supply- covered in capillaries- oxygen can easily get into blood cells.
    Be moist- covered in wet sticky mucus- gases can dissolve and diffuse easily across.
    Be ventilated- alveoli fill when we breathe- otherwise no oxygen would get in from outside world.
  • Alveoli process
    1- deoxgenated blood arrives
    2- high concentration of oxygen in alveoli and low conc of oxygen in red blood cells
    3- high conc of carbon dioxide in blood and low in alveolus 
    4- carbon dioxide diffuses and water vapour diffuses into alveolus while oxygen diffuses out into blood.
    5- oxygenated blood leaves alveolus.
  • Respiration
    is an enzyme controlled process that takes place inside the mitochondria to produce energy.
  • Anaerobic respiration
    Glucose --> lactic acid + energy
  • What is energy for respiration used for in plants
    Active transport of minerals into the plant roots
    building new materials 
  • What is the energy from respiration used for in animals?
    making muscles contract
    keeping warm
    making new substances
    active transport
  • What are the disadvantages of anaerobic respiration
    muscle cramps
    oxygen debt
  • What are the 5 effects of exercise on the body?
    You breathe faster 
    you breathe deeper 
    your heart beats faster 
    stroke volume increases 
  • What happens during exercise?
    The muscles glycogen stores quickly run out and the muscles need to be supplied with more oxygen and glucose for respiration
    You breathe faster to get more oxygen in and co2 and water out.
    arteries supplying blood dilate , heart and stroke volume increase.
    this all means more energy can be created and more waste disposed of
  • What is the effect on training on athletic performance?
    Muscles get stronger
    Stroke volume increases 
    lung capacity increases
    takes longer to switch to anaerobic respiration
  • Yeast anaerobic equation
    glucose --> co2 + ethanol + energy
    A.K.A Fermentation
  • What is the effect of temperature on respiration rate in yeast?
    As the temp increases, so does the rate of anaerobic respiration until it reaches a peak. Above this temp the rate of rest declines as respiration is an enzyme controlled reaction. As temp increases enzymes work more efficiently up to an optimum temp. Above this temp, the enzymes are denatured and resp stops.
  • Aerobic Equation
    glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy
  • 2 Adaptation

  • What are the 6 adaptations of predators
    Eyes on the front of their head (3D)
    Acute senses 
  • What are the 7 adaptations of prey
    Eyes on the side of their head (360)
    Acute senses
  • How does size affect heat generated?
    Heat is generated by cells. The more cells, the more heat. The bigger the animal, the larger the amount of cells.
  • How does surface area affect heat lost?
    Heat is lost through the skin surface of the animal so animals with a larger surface area: volume (small animals) will lose more heat than those with a small surface area: volume (large animals)
  • How do you calculate SA:V
  • What SA:V do large and small animals have?
    Small- large
  • What SA :V are advantages in different climates
    Warm- large SA:V- small
    Cold- small SA:V- warm
  • What are extremophiles?
    Organisms that are adapted to live in extreme conditions . E.g. Alkaline water, acid water, very hot water, very cold water, high pressure, very dry.
  • How do extremophiles survive?
    They have specialised adaptations e.g. Micro-organisms in hot springs have special enzymes to control metabolism
  • What kind of organisms are extremophiles?
    Mostly micro organisms, however there are a few others
  • Classification
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Clinical Testing Phase 2 4th
Tested to see if it is effected, divided into 2 groups. Half given placebo and half the actual drug. They are then monitored to see if they show improvement or deterioration.
Clinical Testing Phase 1 3rd
Tested on small amount of healthy paid volunteers to see if the drug is safe and to experiment with different dosages.
Animal Testing 2nd
During this stage scientists are looking at dosages and side effects
Preclinical Testing 1st
Tested on cell, tissue or isolated whole organs 
If found toxic it is abandoned 90% fail.
very contagious
hospitals full of ill patients whose immune systems are not working well
the infection doesn't respond to most antibiotics.
What is Antibiotic resistance?
This is when the bacteria which causes infection are not killed by an antibiotic used to treat it. This is because they have a mutation in their genes which makes them resistant to the antibiotic because antibiotics are used too often or people don't take the full course of antibiotics. This is an example of natural selection.
What medicines do we have to help with disease?
Painkillers- relieve pain
Antibiotics- drugs that kill bacteria 
Anti- Viral drug- Hard because they hide inside cells.
How was vaccination discovered?
Edward Jenner vaccinated a boy against small pox
Risks and benefits of Vaccination?
risk - child suffering a bad reaction
benefits- children protected, financial benefit
Examples of vaccines?
MMR- measles mumps and rubella 
DPT- diphtheria, polio and tetanus