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Summary - Biology: A Global Approach, Global Edition
1 Biology and its themes
Hebben chimpansees of mensen een beter kortetermijngeheugen?Chimpansees!
Noem de vijf thema's waar omheen de stof is gegroepeerdOrganisatie, Informatie, Energie en materie, Interacites, Evolutie
Geef de indeling van het leve op aarde aan van groot naar kleinBiosfeer, Ecosysteem, Leefgemeenschap, Populatie, organismen
Geef indeling van leven op aarde (vervolg)6. Organen en orgaansystemen, 7. Weefsels, 8. Cellen, 9. Organellen, 10. Moleculen.
5 biological macromolecules and lipids
What is dehydration?two monomers bond together trough the loss of a watermolecule.
What is hydrolyse?polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a water molecule is add and breakdown the bond.
monomers polymer type of linkage
sugar monosaccharide polysaccharede glycosidic linkage
lipids fatty acids triacylglycerols ester linkage
proteins amino acids polypeptide peptide bonds
nucleic acids nucleotide polynucleotide phosphodiester linkage
carbohydrates (sugars): Aldose carbonyl group attached to the first c group
Ketose carbonyl group attached to the second or de middle c group.
alfa glucose oh group attached to numer one carbon BELLOW (helical).
beta glucose oh group attached to numer one carbon ABOVE (straight).
function proteins?speed up chemical reaction; defense, storage, transport, cellular communication movement or structural suport.
how are proteins constructedof the same set of 20 amino acids.
what is de structure of amino acidsamino group, side chain R group, carboxyl group
wich structure have proteins?primary structure:sequence of amino acids, linear chain
secundary structure: coils and folds, hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone alpha helix, beta sheets.
tertairy strucure: three dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side chains. hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges (covalent bonds).
quaternary structure: two or more polpypeptide chains. is the overall protein structure that results from the aggrefation of these polypeptides subunits.
function nucleotide?store transmit, and help express hereditary information.
of what are nucleotides made off?five carbon sugar (pentose), a nitrogen- containing (nitrogenous) base, and one ore more phosphate groups.
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; provides directions for its own replication; directs RNA synthesis; encoded in DNA is the information that programs all the cell's activities; not directed involved in running the operations of the cells.
RNA: ribonucleic acid; controls protein synthese; mRNA interactions with cell's proteinsynthesizing, directed production of a polypeptide; mRNA conveys genetic instructions for building proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; translate the coded information into amino acids sequences.
what are the nitrogenous bases?Cytosine, thymine (uracil in RNA), adenine, guanine.
large biological molecules are usually assembled by polymerization of a few kinds of small subunits. Wich of the following is an exception to this statement?
D an enzyme
E a contractile proteinsteroid
a molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a?
B fatty acid
D nucleic acid
E hydrocarbonfatty acid
wich level of protein structure do the alpha helix and the B pleated sheet represent?
E primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternarysecondary
the molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?
there are 20 different amino acids. what makes one amino acid different from another?
A different side chains (R groups) attached to a carboxyl carbon
B different side chains (R groups) attached to the amino groups
C different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha carbon
D different structural and optical isomers
E different asymmetric carbonsdifferents side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha carbon
a double-stranded DNA molecule contains a total of 120 purines and 120 pyrimidines. this DNA molecule could be composed of?
120 adenine and 120 uracil molecules
120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules
120 cytosine and 120 thymine molecules
120 adenine and 120 cytosine molecules
120 guanine and 120 thymine molecules120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules
wich of the following statements about the 5' end of a polynucleotide strand of DNA is Correct?
the 5' end has a hydroxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
the 5'end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
the 5'end has a phosphate attached to the number 5 carbon of nitrogenous base.
the 5' end has a carboxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
the 5' end is the fifth position on one of the nitrogenous bases.the 5'end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
wich of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers?
D nucleic acids
E lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids all consist of only macromolecular polymers.carbohydrates
which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
A they are both polymers of glucose
B they are cis-trans isomers of each other.
C they can both be digested by humans
D they are both used for energy storage in plants.
E they are both structural components of the plant cell wallthey are both polymers of glucose