Summary Biology: A Global Approach, Global Edition

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ISBN-10 1292008652 ISBN-13 9781292008653
834 Flashcards & Notes
51 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Biology: A Global Approach, Global Edition". The author(s) of the book is/are Jane B Reece Lisa A Urry Neil A Campbell Michael Lee Cain Steven Alexander Wasserman Peter V Minorsky Robert B Jackson. The ISBN of the book is 9781292008653 or 1292008652. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Biology: A Global Approach, Global Edition

  • 1 Biology and its themes

  • Hebben chimpansees of mensen een beter kortetermijngeheugen?
    Chimpansees!
  • Noem de vijf thema's waar omheen de stof is gegroepeerd
    Organisatie, Informatie, Energie en materie, Interacites, Evolutie
  • Geef de indeling van het leve op aarde aan van groot naar klein
    Biosfeer, Ecosysteem, Leefgemeenschap, Populatie, organismen
  • Geef indeling van leven op aarde (vervolg)
    6. Organen en orgaansystemen, 7. Weefsels, 8. Cellen, 9. Organellen, 10. Moleculen.
  • 5 biological macromolecules and lipids

  • What is dehydration?
    two monomers bond together trough the loss of a watermolecule.
  • What is hydrolyse?
    polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a water molecule is add and breakdown the bond.
  •  
                             monomers               polymer                type of linkage
    sugar                monosaccharide     polysaccharede    glycosidic linkage
    lipids                 fatty acids                triacylglycerols     ester linkage
    proteins            amino acids             polypeptide          peptide bonds 
    nucleic acids    nucleotide               polynucleotide     phosphodiester linkage
  • carbohydrates (sugars): Aldose carbonyl group attached to the first c group
                                            Ketose carbonyl group attached to the second or de                                             middle c group.
  • alfa glucose oh group attached to numer one carbon BELLOW (helical).
    beta glucose oh group attached to numer one carbon ABOVE (straight).
  • function proteins?
    speed up chemical reaction; defense, storage, transport, cellular communication movement or structural suport.
  • how are proteins constructed
    of the same set of 20 amino acids.
  • what is de structure of amino acids
    amino group, side chain R group, carboxyl group
  • wich structure have proteins?
    primary structure:sequence of amino acids, linear chain
    secundary structure: coils and folds, hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone alpha helix, beta sheets.
    tertairy strucure: three dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side chains. hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges (covalent bonds).
    quaternary structure: two or more polpypeptide chains. is the overall protein structure that results from the aggrefation of these polypeptides subunits.
  • function nucleotide?
    store transmit, and help express hereditary information.
  • of what are nucleotides made off?
    five carbon sugar (pentose), a nitrogen- containing (nitrogenous) base, and one ore more phosphate groups.
  • DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; provides directions for its own replication; directs RNA synthesis; encoded in DNA is the information that programs all the cell's activities; not directed involved in running the operations of the cells.
  • RNA: ribonucleic acid; controls protein synthese; mRNA interactions with cell's proteinsynthesizing, directed production of a polypeptide; mRNA conveys genetic instructions for building proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; translate the coded information into amino acids sequences.
  • what are the nitrogenous bases?
    Cytosine, thymine (uracil in RNA), adenine, guanine.
  • large biological molecules are usually assembled by polymerization of a few kinds of small subunits. Wich of the following is an exception to this statement?
    A steroid
    B cellulose
    C DNA
    D an enzyme
    E a contractile protein
    steroid
  • a molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a?
    A carbohydrate
    B fatty acid
    C protein
    D nucleic acid
    E hydrocarbon
    fatty acid
  • wich level of protein structure do the alpha helix and the B pleated sheet represent?
    A primary
    B secondary
    C tertiary
    D quaternary
    E primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
    secondary
  • the molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?
    C18H36O18
    C18H32O16
    C6H10O5
    C18H10O15
    C3H6O3
    C18H32O18
  • there are 20 different amino acids. what makes one amino acid different from another?
    A different side chains (R groups) attached to a carboxyl carbon
    B different side chains (R groups) attached to the amino groups
    C different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha carbon
    D different structural and optical isomers
    E different asymmetric carbons
    differents side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha carbon
  • a double-stranded DNA molecule contains a total of 120 purines and 120 pyrimidines. this DNA molecule could be composed of?
    120 adenine and 120 uracil molecules
    120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules
    120 cytosine and 120 thymine molecules
    120 adenine and 120 cytosine molecules
    120 guanine and 120 thymine molecules
    120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules
  • wich  of the following statements about the 5' end of a polynucleotide strand of DNA is Correct?
    the 5' end has a hydroxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
    the 5'end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
    the 5'end has a phosphate attached to the number 5 carbon of nitrogenous base.
    the 5' end has a carboxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
    the 5' end is the fifth position on one of the nitrogenous bases.
    the 5'end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
  • wich of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers?
    A lipids
    B carbohydrates
    C proteins
    D nucleic acids
    E lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and  nucleic acids all consist of only macromolecular polymers.
    carbohydrates
  • which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
    A they are both polymers of glucose
    B they are cis-trans isomers of each other.
    C they can both be digested by humans
    D they are both used for energy storage in plants.
    E they are both structural components of the plant cell wall
    they are both polymers of glucose
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