Summary Biopsychology

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ISBN-10 0205030998 ISBN-13 9780205030996
639 Flashcards & Notes
252 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Biopsychology ". The author(s) of the book is/are John P J Pinel. The ISBN of the book is 9780205030996 or 0205030998. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Biopsychology

  • 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

  • What two divisions is the Nervous System divided into and what are their functions?

    Central Nervous System: Divided into the brain and spinal cord. 

    Peripheral Nervous System: Divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system reacts with the environment and is controllable, and can be divided into two categories: Afferent and Efferent nerves. The autonomic nervous system is automatic without our will, this can also be divided into Afferent and Efferent nerves, whereas Efferent nerves can be divided into the Sympathic and Parasympathic nervous system.

  • What is the difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic system? 

    Sympathetic nerves stimulate in threatening situations and arousal, it needs energy and parasympathetic nerves act to conserve energy, and is used for 'relaxing' situations.

  • What are cranial nerves?

    Cranial nerves are 12 nerves that erupt from the brain. Most of them contain sensory and motory fibers and the autonomic fibers are parasympathetic. 

  • By which membrane proteins (meninges) is the brain protected?

    From outer to inner: 

    1. Dura Mater

    2. Arachnoid Membrane

    3. Subarachnoid Space; large blood vessels and CSF.

    4. Pia Mater; adheres ot the surface of the CNS

  • CSF is produced by..?

    Choroid Plexuses: network of capillaries that go into the ventricles from the Pia Mater

  • Of what is the single reservois containing the cerebral ventricles composed?

     

    Composed of  four ventricles; two lateral ventricles, the third and the fourth ventricle. Furthermore there is a central canal, cerebral aquaduct and the subarachnoid space

  • What is the function of CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid)?

    To support, protect and cushion the brain and to dispose waste from the brains into the vasculair circulation

  • Where does excessive CSF go to?

     

    Into large blood filled spaces, also called; dural sinuses. 

  • How originates a waterhead?

    The flow of CSF is blocked by a tumor near , for example, the cerebral aquaduct. CSF builds up in the ventricles which causes the walls to expand.

  • Explain the Blood Brain Barrier

    The Blood Brain Barriers exists of a special structure of cerebral blood vessels. On contrary to other blood vessels, nutrients cannot readily diffuse from the blood into the brain; thereby protecting the brain against toxins. Glucose is actively transported across the BBB.

  • 3.2.1 Anatomy of neurons

  • Please explain the anatomy of neurons

    Neurons are composed of a cell body, with cell nucleus. On the cell body attached are dendrites, which receive signals from other neruons' axons. The long tail is called an axon, with can be coveres with myelin. Myelin will isolate the axon so signal transduction goes faster. On the end of the axons are the synaps buttons where signal transduction is converted to other neurons. 

  • 3.2.2 Glial Cells: forgotten cells

  • Which forms of glial cells exist?

    1. Oligodendrocytes

    2. Schwann Cells

    3. Microglia

    4. Astrocytes

  • What is the function of oligodendrocytes?

    They wrap their extensions around neurons, thus creating myelin sheaths. They contain several myelin segments and are active in the CNS.

  • What is the function of Schwann cells?

    The same as oligodendrocytes, only Schwann Cells have just one segment to generate myelin sheaths. Schwann Cells can regenerate axon growth after damage. Schwann Cells are active in the PNS.

  • What is the function of Microglia?

    Microglia are smaller cells and respond to injury or disease by multiplying, engulfing cellular debris and triggering inflammatory responses.

  • What is the function of astrocytes?

    They send and receive signals from neurons and other glial cells, they control the establishment and maintenance of synapses between neurons. They modulate neural activity, maintain function of axons and participate in glial circuits. 

     

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Zenuwen die signalen transporteren vanaf een constructie, zoals het CZS zijn ........ zenuwen
efferente
het gedeelte van het perifere zenuwstelsel, dat de interne lichaamsomgeving reguleert, heet het: ........
autonome zenuwstelsel
Het ...... bestaat uit de hersenen en de ruggengraat 
Centrale zenuwstelsel
Noem 4 voordelen van lateralisatie.
1. Conflict vermijding door onverenigbare functies te scheiden en 1 hemisfeer de controle geven.

2. Door specialisatie wordt de capaciteit verhoogd.

3. Snelheid verhoogd door langzame interhemisferische communicatie wordt vermeden (corpus callosum).

4. Parallel-processing; multi-task is mogelijk.
Is lateralisatie uniek in mensen?
Nee, vanaf mid 70's werd het duidelijk dat lateralisatie aanwezig was in zelfs primitieve soorten en alle zoogdieren. Het is dus geevolueerd vroeg in the evolutie van zoogdieren.
Wat is het grote verschil tussen de linker en rechter hemisfeer?
Links houdt zich vooral bezig met rationele dingen, terwijl rechts zich meer bezig houdt met emotionele dingen.
Wat zijn twee karakteristieken van hersen en gedragslateralisatie?
1. Functies zijn dominant in 1 hemisfeer.

2. Hemisferen hebben een set verenigbare functies.
Verlies wordt geassocieerd met schade aan welke hemisfeer?
Linker hemisfeer.
What are three conditions for evolution?
1. Heredity
2. Variability
3. Selection
What is the current view of brain structures that mediate addiction?
1. Prefrontral lobes, amygdala and mesocorticolimbic pathway; initial drug taking.

2. Craving and compulsive drug use: Dorsal striatum and hypothalamic stress circuits.

3. Relapse: prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamic stress circuits.