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Summary - Biopsychology
3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
What two divisions is the Nervous System divided into and what are their functions?
Central Nervous System: Divided into the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System: Divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system reacts with the environment and is controllable, and can be divided into two categories: Afferent and Efferent nerves. The autonomic nervous system is automatic without our will, this can also be divided into Afferent and Efferent nerves, whereas Efferent nerves can be divided into the Sympathic and Parasympathic nervous system.
What is the difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic system?
Sympathetic nerves stimulate in threatening situations and arousal, it needs energy and parasympathetic nerves act to conserve energy, and is used for 'relaxing' situations.
What are cranial nerves?
Cranial nerves are 12 nerves that erupt from the brain. Most of them contain sensory and motory fibers and the autonomic fibers are parasympathetic.
By which membrane proteins (meninges) is the brain protected?
From outer to inner:
1. Dura Mater
2. Arachnoid Membrane
3. Subarachnoid Space; large blood vessels and CSF.
4. Pia Mater; adheres ot the surface of the CNS
CSF is produced by..?
Choroid Plexuses: network of capillaries that go into the ventricles from the Pia Mater
Of what is the single reservois containing the cerebral ventricles composed?
Composed of four ventricles; two lateral ventricles, the third and the fourth ventricle. Furthermore there is a central canal, cerebral aquaduct and the subarachnoid space
What is the function of CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid)?
To support, protect and cushion the brain and to dispose waste from the brains into the vasculair circulation
Where does excessive CSF go to?
Into large blood filled spaces, also called; dural sinuses.
How originates a waterhead?
The flow of CSF is blocked by a tumor near , for example, the cerebral aquaduct. CSF builds up in the ventricles which causes the walls to expand.
Explain the Blood Brain Barrier
The Blood Brain Barriers exists of a special structure of cerebral blood vessels. On contrary to other blood vessels, nutrients cannot readily diffuse from the blood into the brain; thereby protecting the brain against toxins. Glucose is actively transported across the BBB.
3.2.1 Anatomy of neurons
Please explain the anatomy of neurons
Neurons are composed of a cell body, with cell nucleus. On the cell body attached are dendrites, which receive signals from other neruons' axons. The long tail is called an axon, with can be coveres with myelin. Myelin will isolate the axon so signal transduction goes faster. On the end of the axons are the synaps buttons where signal transduction is converted to other neurons.
3.2.2 Glial Cells: forgotten cells
Which forms of glial cells exist?
2. Schwann Cells
What is the function of oligodendrocytes?
They wrap their extensions around neurons, thus creating myelin sheaths. They contain several myelin segments and are active in the CNS.
What is the function of Schwann cells?
The same as oligodendrocytes, only Schwann Cells have just one segment to generate myelin sheaths. Schwann Cells can regenerate axon growth after damage. Schwann Cells are active in the PNS.
What is the function of Microglia?
Microglia are smaller cells and respond to injury or disease by multiplying, engulfing cellular debris and triggering inflammatory responses.
What is the function of astrocytes?
They send and receive signals from neurons and other glial cells, they control the establishment and maintenance of synapses between neurons. They modulate neural activity, maintain function of axons and participate in glial circuits.