Summary Biotechnologia alimentaria

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Summary - Biotechnologia alimentaria

  • 1.1 Biotechnologia

  • What is the definition of Biotechnology?
    Different technics that use organisms to convert stuff to organic compounds with a biological origen or the knowledge to make new products
  • What is the traditional techniques of food biotechnology?
    fermentation, natural selecting and self selecting
  • Wat are moderne techniques of food biotechnology?
    Genetic manipulations of plants, animals
  • Why is modern food technology implemented in the industry?
    • Improving food quality of the prime material like plants and animals
    • process and conservation of food (fermentation, probiotics enz)
    • Control and security of food (traceability, detection of toxic compounds enz)
  • 1.2 History of biotechnology

  • What happend before christ?
     Drying, fermenting (wine, beer), salting
  • What happend after christ till 19th century?
    smoking, slating, new products (coffee cocoa) super as preserver (jam)
  • What happend in the 19th century?
    People started to be more aware, they knew what they were doing. 
    Industrial revolution, lost of traditional character. 
    selecting microorganisms for fermentation. 
    Discovery of enzymes and better control over its processes. 
  • What happend in the 20th century?
    Biomass production
    Citric acid production. 
    Industrial microorganims, easier available enzymes 
    Structure of DNA is discovered and with this how proteins are made. 
  • 2 Technology, legalization and food safety

  • What kind of sceme do you have for food safety control?
    Ciudadano con derechos: citizens rights. The control of the government.
  • How is control accomplished?
    • Implementation of legislation
    • notification of food allerts
    • sanitary inspection
    • staff training
    • development of safer processes development
    • research aimed at monitoring products
    • technology support
  • What are the notification levels?
    1. Alerts: immediate or serious risk. 
    2. Information: no serious risk or without national distribution 
    3. Rects: control of potentially dangerous goods. 
  • What is Regulation (EC) 852/2004
    Makes companies use HACCP
  • What is risk assessment?
    how likely will it be that a risk occurs, hazard analysis
  • What is risk management?
    The process by which the most appropriate option to reduce the risk is chosen.
  • What is risk communication?
    Interactive exchange of information
  • Wat is a best practice guide?
    It is a guid with minimum creator for basics such as hygiene. 
    Some are general others by sector
  • Wich plans fall onder hygiene requirements and traceability (RGHT)?
    1. plan of control for the water
    2. plan for cleaning and disinfection
    3. plan for education of staff
    4. plan to maintain equidment
    5. plan to control insects and unwanted animals (plages)
    6. plan for wast management 
    7. plan for traceability
    8. plan for control of raw materials for the suppliers
    9. plan to keep product chilled
  • 2.1 HACCP

  • What are ste steps in applying HACCP?
    1. Formation of a HACCP team
    2. Product description 
    3. Determine what the product will be used for
    4. Develop of flowchart
    5. Confirmation of the flowchart
    6. Implementation of the HACCP
  • How does the formation of the HACCP team go?
    • multidisciplinary team. 
    • know how it is mad and sold, experience with the process
    • knowledge about food safety
    • knowledge about HACCP
    • Involved in the self control system
  • How does product description go?
    • Name of product
    • ingridients (incl amounts)
    • microbial and physic-chemical characteristics (pH, water activity, saltiness ect.)
    • Way of packaging
    • Tech treatment of product
    • storage conditions
    • System to indetify product
    • product life (expire date)
    • Destination: where the product is going --> hospital more careful!)
    • Expected use
  • What is a flowchart?
    Schematic and systematic representation of where to food goes to from production to marketing
  • Out of what does HACCP consist?
    1. hazard analysis
    2. critical control points
    3. critical limits
    4. monitor
    5. corrective actions
    6. certification
    7. documentation
  • Wat is a hazard analysis?
    Collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to decide which factors are significant for food safety and therefore raised in HACCP?
  • What are the things that you need to take into account when you are analyzing a risk?
    • How likely it is it is that the hazard will occur and its severity 
    • The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the presence of hazards 
    • microbial hazard: when will the microorganisms multiply
    • production of toxins, chemical s or physical went
    • things that may contribute to the things above. 
  • What is a biological hazard?
    microbial hazard is a part of this

    The presens, incorporation survival enz of living organisms in food. 
    micro organism and there toxins and viruses
    parasites
    prions ( part of protein that makes you sick)
    living organisms (insects enz. )
  • What is a chemical hazard?
    harmfull chemicals from raw material or process. 
    cleaning, pesticides heavy metal veterinary drugs

    1. Chemical contaminants 
    2. Environmental contaminants
    3. Waste pharmacological and phytosanitary
    4. toxic compounds from processing
    5. toxic from material in contact with food
    6. natural toxins
    7. Endocrine distruptors (hormoonontregelaars
    8. Radionuclide
    9. Prohibited substanes or unauthorized substances
    10. unicellular algae or marine bio toxins
  • Wat is a physical hazard?
    peaces of glass, metal, plastic stone, bone chips, radioactive enz. 
    8% of hazards is this
  • How do you determine the critical control points?
    A phase in which control can be applied. 
    Because of this you can awnser logical questions and decide what to do with a specific condition. 
  • How do you determine the critical control points?
    Establish a critical limit to determine what is unexaptile.
    Like love a seen temp, time or pH
  • How do you monitor the CCP's?
    a plannend sequence of observations or measurements of the parameters. 
    • then 
    • how
    • where
    • when 
    • who
  • How do you determine corrective action?
    Correct your mistake or do not use the product.
  • What can you do if the food is not safe?
    • Hold the food under good conditions in order to decide there destination
    • Repeat the process to get the right standards
    • Use it in an other product line (cocked instead of raw)
    • Give it an other destiny then human consumption 
    • Destroy
  • Ho do you do the verification.
    This is the checking if everything is going as planned. And to determine compliance in the HACCP.
  • How do you document and register?
    You safe all your documents
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What kind of assessments do you need to do before using a GMO?
  1. Health assessment
  2. Environmental assessment
Why do you use transgenic yeast?
Can improve the tast, give it a different tast and helps with clarification and other stuff like that.
Why would you use GMO lactic acid bacteria?
Because you can choose the caracteristics.
What is the PCR method?
DNA aplification

Advantage: speedy, specific, affordable
Disadvantage: Does not distinguish between life and death. 
What is a Immunological technique?
For quality control of raw materials and fresh food. 
ELISA, working with antibody's enz.
What 3 methods are there for quality control with GMO's?
  1. Immunological techniques
  2. PCR based methods 
  3. DNA microarrays
What are the advantages of GMO's that produces enzymes and other components?
  • You can get things that normal are not obtained by a chemical syntheses or that are difficult to produce for microorganism 
  • Optimize the production of the component
  • Less environmental impect
What are expamples of components synthesized by GMO's?
Enzymes
Additives
Amino acids
Vitamins
What are the 7 applications of genetic engineering in food?
  1. Improving the quality of raw materials of plants and animals
  2. Cell factories for production of enzymes and other compounds 
  3. Molecular biology techniques for quality control in the food industry
  4. Nutrigenomics
  5. Molecular identification f pathogenic and spolage mo
  6. Detection of GMO's
Why are biosensors useful?
They are easy and cheap mesurements