Summary bones 3

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Summary - bones 3

  • 9.18 bones

  • the process of bone formation
    ossification
  • occurs on hyaline cartilage models or fibrous membranes
    ossification
  • remaining cartilage in adults (5)
    bridge of the nose
    external ears
    parts of the ribs
    joints
    shock-absorbing disc
  • ossification occurs through __, __, and __
    fetal, childhood, and adolescence
  • two major phases of ossification in long bones
    osteoblasts beging making bone matrix
    osteoclasts form medullary cavity
  • in ossification, osteoblasts makes bone matrix in the __ and __
    bone collar and primary ossification/ growth center
  • superficial bone of diaphysis in ossification
    bone collar
  • center of the diaphysis in ossification
    primary ossification/ growth center
  • in the second phase of ossification, osteoblasts also
    form the secondary growth center in epiphysis (ends)
  • By birth, moth cartilage is converted to bone except __ and __ of a long bone
    articular cartilages
    epiphyseal plates
  • __ and __ allow for lengthwise growth of long bones during childhood
    cartilage of epiphyseal plates and articular cartilage
  • cartilage is continuously ossified as it grows away from the __ and __ (active osteoblasts)
    epiphyseal plate and articular cartilage
  • in long bone formation, old cartilage is broken down and replaced by __
    bony matrix
  • growth is driven by __ during the embryonic, fetal, and childhood development
    hormones
  • __ work with __ to accelerate bone lengthening ans ossification of epiphyseal plates
    sex hormones and growth hormones
  • lady sex hormones
    estrogen and progesterone
  • strong fast and effective in bone lengthening
    estrogen and progesterone
  • strong but slower stimulus of bone legnthening
    testosterone
  • makes female-specific changes to pelvic shape
    estrogen and progesterone
  • makes bones heavier, thicker, and larger bone markings
    testosterone
  • in bone formation, some bone is resorbed by osteoclasts to create __
    bone shapes and markings
  • osteoclasts in the __ remove bone from the inner surface of he diaphysis to create medullary cavities
    endosteum
  • appositional growth include (2)
    bone growth in width
    osteoblasts in the periosteum add bone matrix to outside diaphysis
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