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Summary - Business research methods
1 The nature of business and management research
Wat zijn de vier typen van onderzoek?
- Reportuing study
- Descriptive Study
- Explanatory study
- Predictive study
typesof research are available?
- Reporting - producing an account or summation of some data or general statistics
- Descriptive - Tries to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where and sometimes how
- Explanatory - goes beyond description and tries to explain the reasons for the phenomenon
- Predictive - Goes beyond explanation and tries to predict when an event is likely to happen again
Goed research bestaat uit ?
- Duidelijk doel
- Gedetailleerd onderzoeksproces
- Juiste planning onderzoeksontwerp
- Toepassing van hoge ethische standaarden
- Juiste weergave van de beperkingen van het onderzoek
- Adequate analyse zodat voldaan wordt aan de wensen van de besluitsvormers
- Juiste presentatie van de uitkomsten
- Juiste conclusies
- Weerspriegeling van de ervaring van de onderzoeker
- Duidelijk doel
What is the difference between good and poor
The following dimensions determine the quality of research:
- Purpose clearly defined
- Research process detailed
- Research design thoroughly planned
- High ethical standards applied
- Limitations frankly revealed
- Adequate analysis for decision-maker s needs
- Findings presented unambiguously
- Conclusions justified
- Researcher's experience reflected
The different research
philosophies, their basic principles, assumptions and implications
- Positivism - Social world exists externally, research is value-free, researcher is independent
- Interpretivism - the social world is constructed and is given meaning subjectively by people, the researcher is part of what is observed, research is driven by interests
formulatea solid research hypothesis
A good hypothesis should be:
- Adequate for its purpose
- Better than its rivals
Skill sheet A1
- Dare to build upon the research of others
- Dare to make motivated choices
- Always define the most important concepts
- Explain flaws in the research
- Make a clear distinction between analytical and normative judgement
- Strive for the highest possible integrity
- Be critical and creative
- Good research is disciplined and realistic
Skills sheet A2
- Problem definition
Aims of applied research
Skill sheet A6
- Always make these steps:
- Problem definition
- Take sufficient time to formulate an interesting question or hypothesis
- Create a solid feasible study
- beware of overstretch
Skill sheet A11
- What do I want to know Always before what can i know
- Take time frame in account when creating research question
- Research question should allow you to be critical and creative
- Compile a list of keywords that you think best cover your research topic
- Decide beforehand what you consider to be the clearest value added by your research
- Look at questions in other research projects that you liked most
Skill sheet A12
- Avoid using general and descriptive hypotheses
- Dont reduce complecity too early in your research (dont base it on assumptions)
- Hypotheses should be stated as facts to allow falsification
Skill sheet A9
- Theoretical VS Empirical
- Positivist VS subjectivist
- Explorative VS conclusive
- Fundamental VS applied
- Dependent VS independent variables
Skill sheet A10
- Construct Validity - Do you research what you say you research
- Internal validity - Do you research right?
- External validity - Is your data generalizable
- Reliability - Would the same thing happen if you did it ten times?
Skill sheet A10
- Experiments - Detect causal relationships - High internal validity - low external validity
- Surveys - Quantitative data for qualitative questions - Direct contact not needed - high internal validity - can manipulate answers in a certain manner
- Case studies - gain insight in real life events. for how or why questions - direct interaction - almost no external validity
- Desk research -
1.1 Why study research
What is business research?Systematic inquiry with the objective to provide information that will allow managerial problems to be solved.
What is business research?
A systematic investigation
What is Business research
The providing of information in order for managerial problems to be solved.
Waarom bestuderen we "research"?Omdat het onderzoeken van "research" methodes je de kennis en vaardigheden geeft om problemen op te lossen en uitdagingen aan te gaan in situaties waar snel beslissingen moeten worden genomen
Scientific research approach:
Topic & Research Question -> Literature Review -> Research Design -> Data Collection -> Data Analysis-> Reporting
What is the objective of business research?
To provide the information that will allow managerial problems to be solved
Welke factoren stimuleren de vraag naar wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar besluitvorming?
- De vraag voor meer en beter informatie omdat keuzes meer complex worden
- Het aanbod aan verbeterde technieken om aan deze vraag te voldoen
- Het overaanbod aan informatie wat hieruit voortvloeit wanneer discipline niet in het proces aanwezig is.
Methodology: identification and utilization of the best approach for addressing a theoretical or practical problem.
Methods: refers to the tools, techniques, or procedures used to generate data
Waarom bestuderen we "research"?Omdat het ons de kennis en kunde geeft om problemen op te lossen en uitdagingen aan te gaan in een omgeving waar snelle besluitvorming nodig is.
Qualitative approachQuantitative approach
- Ethnography- Experiment
- Case study- Survey
- Grounded theory
Wat is "Business Research"?Verwijst naar de onderzoeken die fenomenen uit de zakelijke wereld bestuderen om zo tot besluitvorming te komen.
Quantitative research examines the relationships between variables. Data is collected in a standard manner, the researcher is seen as independent from those being researched.
Wat is een "Management Dilemma"?Een kans of bedreiging, waarvoor een management keuze nodig is.
Different types of research questions
"what are grocery shopping stressors" - Loose structure, discover future tasks
"are there gender differences in the color-product choice relationship" - answer who, what, when, where
"what is the impact of internet knowledge on college student's intention to use the internet to find answers to their study questions" - Explain the relation between variables
Different research methods
1. Experiment (Quantitative) - what, how, why?
- Manipulation of independent variable- Artificial environment
- Control group- Generalizibility
- Pre- and post-test measures- Limited number of variables
- Replication- Ethics
2. Survey (Quantitative) - what, why, where, how much, to what degree
When to use non experimental research approach:
- When IV's are not modifiable
- When IV's should not be modified for ethical reasons
- When other types of validity than internal validity are important for the purpose of your study
When developing own survey include;
- All factors related to your research questions/objectives
- Factors related to your respondents + control variables (keep demographics etc constant so there is no influence on the effect of the IV on the DV)
- Design questions or use existing validates scales (ideally minimum of three questions per factor)
- Nominal variable; not ordered categories; gender or ID
- Ordinal variable; order matters but not difference in value. Scale 1-10. Difference between 6-8 can be different between 4-6 or A<B<C
- Interval variable; difference between values is meaningful. For example temperature/time
-Ratio variable; Same as interval, but when variable equals 0.0, there is none of that variable. Vb; height or profit.
Moderating variable; variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between the IV and DV.
Mediating variable; located between the IV and DV variables which explains the relationship between them. Seeking a more accurate explanation of the effect that the predictor or IV has on the outcome or DV, it makes the causal change possible.