Summary Capita Selecta in Clinical Psychology

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This is the summary of the book "Capita Selecta in Clinical Psychology". The author(s) of the book is/are I Wessel and M aan het Rot. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Capita Selecta in Clinical Psychology

  • 4 Resilience

  • Resilience
    Human's amazing ability to bounce back and even thrive in the face of serious life challenges.
  • Some researchers have also defined resilience as an absence of problem behaviors or psychopathology following adversity/
  • Recovery
    involves a period of clinically significant symptoms lasting at least 6 months. (long-term) resilience is characterized by 'bouncing back' from negative experiences
  • Blaming a victim for his or her own distress can impede recovery by adding an additional source of stress, and by reducing social support a person needs to recover.
  • Protective factors within the child include
    • Good intellectual ability and problem-solving abilities
    • Easy-going temperament and a personality that can adapt to change
    • Positive self-image and personal effectiveness
    • Optimistic outlook
    • Ability to regulate and control emotions and impulses
    • Individual talents that are valued by the individual and by his or her culture
    • Healthy sense of humor
  • Protective factors within the family
    • Close relationship parents
    • warm and supportive parenting
    • minimal conflict
    • structured and organized home environment
    • involved in education
    • adequate financial resources
  • Protective factors within the community
    • good school
    • involvement in social organizations
    • involved and caring people
    • safe neighborhood
  • Resilient youths compared to non-resilient youths, scored significantly higher on measures of cognitive and emotional self-regulation. Their thinking shows flexibility in considering alternative solutions, and tasks are considered abstractly rather than concretely > Cognitive self-regulation involves the ability to see the big picture
  • Emotional regulation is an important part of social competence that contributes to the development and maintenance of effective and supportive relationships with others.
  • Socioemotional selectivity theory
    As people realize they have fewer years remaining in their lives, they begin to shift their attention away froma ctivities and goals related to the future and come to focus more on the present.
  • Basic assumptions that are challenged by trauma
    1. Belief in personal invulnerability
    2. Perception of the world as meaningful and comprehensible
    3. View of ourselves in a positive light
  • Positive changes reported in posttraumatic growth literature
    Changes in perception
    • An increased feeling of personal strength, confidence and self-reliance
    • Greater appreciation of the fragility of life, including one's own
    • Perceptions of self as survivor rather than a victim
    Changes in relationships
    • Closer ties to family
    • Greater emotional disclosure and feelings of closeness to others
    • More compassion for others and more willingness to give to others
    Changes in life priorities
    • Increased clarity about what is most important in life
    • A deeper and often spiritual sense of the meaning in life
    • A new commitment to take life easier
    • Less concern with acquiring material possessions, money, and social status
  • Meaning making
    Refers to an active process of reappraisal and revision of how an event might be interpreted of what it might signify
    Sense-making
    Benefit-finding
  • 8 Clinical Forensic Psychology

  • Anonymous missives
    Are usually unwanted letters repeadetly sent by an individual, who withholds their identity to a particular recipient.
  • Abnormal offender
    A hybrid offender who provides many challenges for health and justice systems which assume clients that are singly disordered or offenders. In which clinical and forensic issues become inseperable. Abnormal offenders are far more amenable than those offenders with fewer detectable distinctions.
  • The forensic implications of impulsive disorders are unlikely to be understood by a magistrates' court regarding a shoplifting offence, but an expert in this field with forensic training can place the offence in its pathological context and arrive at the appropriate degree of mitigation.
  • Schizophrenic individuals form 1 percent of the population but are responsible for about 5 per cent of homicides. Patients often act on instructions from hallucinatory 'voices' or from false beliefs that others mean them harm.
  • One-sided suicide pacts
    The sufferer sees only a bleak future in a threatening world for those close to them, their way out being to kill their loved ones then themselves.
  • Substance abuse has a close association with petty crime. In the case of alcohol, although violence and serious motor offences are also associated with its use in the 'non-alcoholic' population, rates of crime among alcoholics are very high, varying between 40 and 80 per cent
  • Children and Young Persons'Act 
    Assumes that young criminals are victims rather than onherently 'bad' and that delinquency is a cry for help. It is difficult for society to accept that persons of sound mind offend willingly and uninfluenced, as anyone could then be a criminal.
  • Biological positivism
    Focuses on only objective empirical evidence in the biological sphere. Trends in biological positivism tend to parallel contemporary scientific trends
  • Ectomorph
    Thin and frail, and being a quiet introvert was thus not predisposed to crime.
  • Endomorph
    Shape implied a soft, rotund body and a relaxed, sociable personality, who would be less likely to turn criminal
  • Mesomorph
    An athletic and muscular body build and was considered by Sheldon the most likely of the somatypes to be criminal.
  • Early biological positivist approaches tended to pioneer the scientific method in crime research but were remarkably weak in establishing cause and effect relations with the factors in which they focused.
  • Mental retardation rather than aggression would account for a higher proportion of XYY abnormal individuals in institutions.
  • Christiansen (1968) found the concordance for dizygotic twins to be around a third that of monozygotic twins, indicating a substantial genetic component, which was found to be even greater for more serious crime.
  • Control theory
    Theorises that everyone could be a criminal but some factos restrains (i.e. controls) the majority; in the case of Eysenck this factor is socialisation or the development of a conscience, and those failing to develop this restraint are more likely to become criminal.
  • Neurotic introvert
    A 'melancholic' or moody and anxious type. prone to mental disorders.
  • Neurotic extravert
    A 'choleric' or restless and aggressive type, prone to criminality
  • Stable introvert
    A 'phlegmatic' or peaceful, controlled and reliable type.
  • Stable extravert
    A 'sanguine' or optimistic, outgoing and responsive type.
  • Yerkes-Dodson principle
    Extraverts may not find punishment aversive, and may find that aggression provides needed stimulation.
  • Situationalist
    Personality may change with context
  • Latent delinquency (Early psychodynamic approach)
    Here a lack of socialisation due to a failure of the reality principle results in a weak superego, leaving a latent form of the pleasure principle guiding behavior.
  • Maternal deprivation
    Bowlby (1944) found that a greater proportion of delinquents at a child guidance clincic had been seperated for more than 6 months in the first 5 years of life from their primary caregiver (their mother)
  • It is also more important to have the key parent emotionally rather than physically present, placing emphasis on the quality rather than quantitiy of the family relationship.
  • Differential association theory
    Crime is learned by association with other criminally inclined people in close personal groups.
  • Operant conditioning
    Skinner considered that behaviour 'operates' in an environment to produce 'criminal' change, which is reinforcing to that particular individual. Such reinforcement can be: material, as in the outcomes of theft; avoidance, as in avoiding heroin withdrawal; or inceasingly in the form of social esteem status.
  • Social learning
    Albert Bandura- Viacrious learning or learning by observing the consequences of other's behaviour.
  • Cognitive explanations of crime
    Have examined the 'thinking styles' of criminals, often identifying these as being more impulsive and concrete in their patterns.
  • Children diagnosed with ADHD were later to be found in more anti-social and criminal activity than non-hyperactive chidren. 
  • The primary deficits in many cases of AdHD, such as frontostriatal networks dysfunction and cathecholamine dyregulation, are the neuropsychological substrates underpinning aberrant behaviour patterns that have genetic origins.
  • Low heart rate is found to be more evident in anti-social individuals from a high social class background. Brennan et al. (1997) found  high autonomic arousal in individuals to be  a factor that is protective against criminality if they have an anti-social home environment.
  • Ultimate explanations
    The adaptive value of criminal behaviour
  • Proximal explanations
    the more immediate causes of crime, such as genetic, constitutional, environmental or social factors.
  • Clinical forensic profiler
    Tends to be a marginally more successful approach, as a result of most of the cases amenable to profiling involving disordered offenders.
  • Profiling has been described as 'an educated attempt to provide investigative agencies with specific information as to the type of individual who would have commited a certain crime'
  • Interpersonal narratives
    The ways in which the offender interacts  with other factors, including their relationship with the victim.
  • Spatial patterns
    Areas within which an offender feels safe, usually beacause they are familiar. 
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Dependence
Medications and illicit drug duties over a long period or time lead to adjustments of the patient's physiologicalfunctions such that he will become used to, and even rely on, the presence of such chemicals in his body. In some cases, medications or street drugs replace chemicalcompoundsthat the body naturally produces on its own. A classicexmple for this is the extended consumption of heroin, morphine, or methadone leads to cessation of production of enkephalin, which is a natural pain killer. When this happens,dependence is at its worst because an attempt at withdrawing the drug produces highly aversive withdrawal symptoms.
Withdrawal
Stopping or medications or illicit drugs often leads to unpleasant symptoms because the patient'sbody has adjusted to the medication; when this chemical is no longer in the system, the body will have toreadjust. It is therefore common practice to gradually fade out medication tominimize withdrawal effects.
Tolerance
This term describes the fact that with many medications medications patients will need higher doses to attain the same effect if the medication is tasks over an extended period or time.
Adverse effects
While side effects are often surprising and may be unpleasant, they tend to be predictableand often harmless. However, with some drugs theunintended effects can become truly dangerous and lead to such dangerous conditions as liver failure, pulmonary hypotension, or damage to an unborn baby if the medication is taken by a pregnant woman.
Side effects
Because prescription and illicit drugs have potentially stron effects, they may also produce uncomfortable and undesirable symptoms that are not intended but are often unavoidable. Tocomplicatethings, not every drug produces the same side effects in every patient. Relatively frequent andpredictable side effects should be mentioned to patients early on so they are not scared when side effects do occur.
Meaning making
Refers to an active process of reappraisal and revision of how an event might be interpreted of what it might signify
Sense-making
Benefit-finding
Positive changes reported in posttraumatic growth literature
Changes in perception
  • An increased feeling of personal strength, confidence and self-reliance
  • Greater appreciation of the fragility of life, including one's own
  • Perceptions of self as survivor rather than a victim
Changes in relationships
  • Closer ties to family
  • Greater emotional disclosure and feelings of closeness to others
  • More compassion for others and more willingness to give to others
Changes in life priorities
  • Increased clarity about what is most important in life
  • A deeper and often spiritual sense of the meaning in life
  • A new commitment to take life easier
  • Less concern with acquiring material possessions, money, and social status
Basic assumptions that are challenged by trauma
  1. Belief in personal invulnerability
  2. Perception of the world as meaningful and comprehensible
  3. View of ourselves in a positive light
Socioemotional selectivity theory
As people realize they have fewer years remaining in their lives, they begin to shift their attention away froma ctivities and goals related to the future and come to focus more on the present.
Protective factors within the community
  • good school
  • involvement in social organizations
  • involved and caring people
  • safe neighborhood