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- ionic bonds broken
- ion dipole bonds formed
- hydrogen bonds in water are broken
- similar strength between bonds broken and made
- measure the area under the peak
- Find the total area
- % = (area of one peak / total area) x 100
The distance travelled by the substance divided by the distance traveled by the solvent.
In benzene the electrons are delocalised/ spread out. In alkenes electrons are concentrated between two carbons - electrophiles are attracted more to greater electron density in alkenes.
It can form a dipole with the chlorine gas to form Cl+
Enthalpy change of formation
It is not affected by sunlight/oxygen/water (just need to remember one)