Summary Chemistry and Biochemistry

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Summary - Chemistry and Biochemistry

  • 2.7.1 Key concept: valence shell, octet rule, atom/compound stability

  • When a carbon atom is part of an organic compound, how full is its valence (outer) shell?
    Carbon's valence (outer) shell contains 4 paired electrons as to achieve stability, each carbon atom must form 4 chemical bonds to fill its valence electron shell
  • Why?
    Atoms that make up organic compounds form covalent bonds to fill their valence electron shells to become stable
  • How does the octet rule relate to the number of covalent bonds that a carbon atom forms within an organic compound?
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  • Are the carbon atoms within an organic compound more or less stable than individual atoms not part of a compound?
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  • Why are the carbon atoms within an organic compound more stable than individual atoms not part of a compound?
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  • 2.7.2 Key concept: Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

  • How is the covalent bonding within a saturated hydrocarbon different from the covalent bonding in an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
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  • Is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon likely to have more hydrogens attached to the carbon atoms in the compound? Why?
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  • Does an unsaturated hydrocarbon compound contain any single carbon to carbon bonds? Explain why/why not.
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  • 2.8.1 Key concept: bonding arrangements of hydrocarbons

  • Are saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons more reactive?
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  • What types of chemical reactions do the reactive hydrocarbons participate in?
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  • What allows the reactive hydrocarbons to participate in these reactions?
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  • How is an alkyne converted to alkane?
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  • Does the alkyne compound become more or less stable through the conversion to an alkane? Why?
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  • 2.8.2 Key concept: hydrocarbon functional groups

  • How is benzene different to other hydrocarbons such as alkanes, alkenes and alkynes?
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  • What are resonance structures of benzene and how do they explain the stability of benzene?
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  • Would it be easier to break a double carbon to carbon bond within an alkene or in benzene? Justify your answer.
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  • 2.9.1 Key concept: reactivity of functional groups

  • Why is it necessary for the body to take alcohol to the liver once it enters the blood?
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  • What are the functional group changes that allow alcohol breakdown to occur?
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  • What type of chemical reaction facilitates these functional group changes?
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  • Why are people of Asian ethnicity often more affected by alcohol than others? Explain.
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1.2 How does the citrate transporter part of the citrate-malate shuttle occur? (2 parts)

A CA binds to O to create C

C transports from MM to the C via the C T
1.2 What is the citrate-malate shuttle?
The movement of A CA from the M M to the C for the purposes of FA S
1 - What are the main steps in lipogenesis? (3 parts)

C M S S
A of A CA to M CA
FA S
1 - What are the differences between lipogenesis and β-oxidation? (4 parts)

I's are bound to an A C P 

The R A is N 

FA's build-up T C A's at a time to create FA's

The FA's are often P which have S C A's
1 - Is lipogenesis similar to β-oxidation?
Y, but in R
1 - How does lipogenesis occur?
Using the M-E C FA S
1 - When does lipogenesis occur?
When the N I is G than the B's E R's
1 - Where does lipogenesis occur?
In the C of C's in the L, A T and M G's
1 - What is lipogenesis?
C of A CA to FA's
5 - What role do VLDL perform in the body?
Transport T S in the L to A T