Summary Class notes - Biological and Cognitive Psychology

Course
- Biological and Cognitive Psychology
- -
- 2019 - 2020
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Psychologie
101 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Biological and Cognitive Psychology

  • 1547593200 HC 18 Language

  • What is lateralization?
    Lateralization is the contribution of both hemispheres to language for example. Left hemisphere most important in most people for language
  • What is the WADA test for?
    For testing hemispheric dominance, you selectively anesthetize one hemisphere with Sodium Amytal. Anesthetize left hemisphere and see if language is impaired. If left hemisphere is dominant, you will not be able to speak anymore
    Anesthetize right hemisphere and see if language still works. 

    -> very invasive, most prominent test though. 
  • What are less invasive options than the WADA test?
    • Hemisphere function disruption by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) 
    • Neuroimaging --> put people in mri and scan brain function when they are naming things they see. If you record brain imaging, you see more activation in … hemisphere (depends on person)
  • The right hemisphere has a dominance for recognizing ... in speech
    • Dominance right hemisphere for recognizing emotion in speech. Speech versus prosody. You can put emotion into speech by changing prosody (come here and COME HERE)
  • How does language processing go, according to the Wernicke-Geschwind model?
    Auditory information goes into ear when someone is talking. Interpreted at back brain where parietal and temporal lobe cross. Based on that information, person might want to answer or repeat back. Attempt is brought to frontal lobe, Broca’s area. Broca’s area makes motor program to say something back. Is conveyed to motor cortex. Will enable you to speak. 
  • Broca's area
    Motor plan. Region of premotor cortex for planning speech, in right word order: grammar. So entire sentence. Broca’s area needs all grammar, not only for articulating whole words. 
  • Reading


    • Reading letters book --> primary visual cortex
    • Couple it to sound codes --> convert visual info to sound code: book. Angular gyrus
    • Couple sound codes to find word. Recognize sound code and derive meaning (with angular gyrus). 
    • Wernicke can again find out what word code is. Can give information to angular gyrus, where dictionary is at. 

    • (Finally everything is the same as with hearing. ) Only input is different. Text versus auditory information
  • Wernicke’s aphasia

    No understanding of spoken or written language. Fluent and rhythmical speech with intonation, but without meaning. They can speak, because motor cortex and planning is okay. Alsoproposy, but what they say makes no sense. Their word code/ word meaning areas are damaged. 

    “Like listening to someone speaking a foreign language”

    They can lead a kind of normal life. They can still eat, etc. 
  • Pure word deafness 

    Specific problem with recognising spoken words (sound codes) 

    Own speech and reading and writing intact. Failure to recognise incoming sounds as a code for a word. And consequently, they cannot go to dictionary to find out the meaning of words
  • Transcortical Sensory Aphasia
    Dictionary is damaged. Word code is recognized, but there is a failure to derive word meaning. No understanding of spoken of written language, no connection between word (wernicke) and word meaning (posterior language area). They are able to repeat what you’re saying, but they don’t understand what they are repeating back. 
  • Anomic aphasia

    Fluent speech and good understanding. But during speech some words cannot be found in memory.  “I’m taking the... ehh you know that thing you can ride on” (bicycle)

    Anomia can be specific for persons, tools, animals --> inferior temporal lesions. But also for verbs. Averbia: broca’s area. Or own bodyparts --> autopagnosia: left-parietal. All these classes are in different parts of the brain. Different areas for naming tools or animals. 

    If you have a lesion that is in one area, you can have problems with naming animals, but you can name tools/ people. Very specific
  • Conduction aphasia
    Problem with repeating speech. Arculatefasiculus. Damage to direct connection between Wernicke and Broca. Extra connection (that conveys meaning) enables normal speech and repeating speech in own words. They cannot literally repeat it, but they will say something similar. 
  • Broca’s aphasia

    Laborious production of language using predominantly nouns. No prosody of rhythm. 

    • Motor problems. Problems with articulation (difficult words especially). Also grammar (anomia for verbs) leading to poorly constructed sentences.
    • In case of small isolated lesions (rare): variants where people have problems limited to articulation (insula) or anomia and agrammatism (broca)

    (example: tonotono)

    Can they still write things? In general same problems, but sometimes it helps to use two systems (speaking and writing), but usually problems with both. 
  • 2 pathways in model for reading

    1. Sight of word --> Whole word recognition (directly couple it to memory) --> control of speech

    • Use it for familiar words, bicycle, ball.. Whole words recognized in one time. You can’t use it for new words or non-words. Because then you need to recognise the letters, phonetic reading. -> 
    • 2. Sight of word --> letter recognition --> phonetic coding (sounds of letters) --> control of speech 
  • Anomia
    Difficulty in finding the right words to describe something
  • People with surface dyslexia can only read using...
    Phonetic method (sounding out everything)

    Recognising words in one as a whole is not possible anymore. You need to sound out each word letter by letter (like children that learn to read). No problem for words like “hand” of “chin”, but it is a problem if pronunciation of the word is different from the sound code indicated by the letters. 
  • Phonological dyslexia:

    1. Generating the sound code of the word is not possible anymore. Patients can only read words they already know (problem with new or non-words) 

    --> dorsal stream. Recognising letters that you see, sound code, covertly pronounce word
  • Direct dyslexia:
    Analogue of transcortical sensory aphasia for hearing words (word book damaged). Patients cannot communicate verbally (meaningless speech and no understanding of other people’s speech). Dictionary does not work anymore. They can read aloud, they can recognise the word. But no understanding. 
  • Developmental dyslexia:
    Congenital problem with fluent reading. Concerns more phonetic than whole word reading. Highly heritable: MZ twin concordance 84-100%, DZ twins 20-35% concordance. 
  • True or false? Dyslexia occurs more often in languages with a deep orthography like Dutch, French, and in particular English. 
    True
  • Orthographic dysgraphia (analogue of surface dyslexia)

    No access to whole-word image

    Spelling based on sounds, leading to many errors
  • Phonological dysgraphia (analogue of phonological dyslexia)
    Cannot spell based on sounds, problems with writing new or nonsense words. --> damage to dorsal system
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Phonological dysgraphia (analogue of phonological dyslexia)
Cannot spell based on sounds, problems with writing new or nonsense words. --> damage to dorsal system
Orthographic dysgraphia (analogue of surface dyslexia)

No access to whole-word image

Spelling based on sounds, leading to many errors
True or false? Dyslexia occurs more often in languages with a deep orthography like Dutch, French, and in particular English. 
True
Developmental dyslexia:
Congenital problem with fluent reading. Concerns more phonetic than whole word reading. Highly heritable: MZ twin concordance 84-100%, DZ twins 20-35% concordance. 
Direct dyslexia:
Analogue of transcortical sensory aphasia for hearing words (word book damaged). Patients cannot communicate verbally (meaningless speech and no understanding of other people’s speech). Dictionary does not work anymore. They can read aloud, they can recognise the word. But no understanding. 
Phonological dyslexia:

  1. Generating the sound code of the word is not possible anymore. Patients can only read words they already know (problem with new or non-words) 

--> dorsal stream. Recognising letters that you see, sound code, covertly pronounce word
People with surface dyslexia can only read using...
Phonetic method (sounding out everything)

Recognising words in one as a whole is not possible anymore. You need to sound out each word letter by letter (like children that learn to read). No problem for words like “hand” of “chin”, but it is a problem if pronunciation of the word is different from the sound code indicated by the letters. 
Anomia
Difficulty in finding the right words to describe something
2 pathways in model for reading

  1. Sight of word --> Whole word recognition (directly couple it to memory) --> control of speech

  • Use it for familiar words, bicycle, ball.. Whole words recognized in one time. You can’t use it for new words or non-words. Because then you need to recognise the letters, phonetic reading. -> 
  • 2. Sight of word --> letter recognition --> phonetic coding (sounds of letters) --> control of speech 
Broca’s aphasia

Laborious production of language using predominantly nouns. No prosody of rhythm. 

  • Motor problems. Problems with articulation (difficult words especially). Also grammar (anomia for verbs) leading to poorly constructed sentences.
  • In case of small isolated lesions (rare): variants where people have problems limited to articulation (insula) or anomia and agrammatism (broca)

(example: tonotono)

Can they still write things? In general same problems, but sometimes it helps to use two systems (speaking and writing), but usually problems with both.