Summary Class notes - Biological Psychology

- Biological Psychology
- N/A
- 2014 - 2015
- University of Durham
- Psychology (applied)
571 Flashcards & Notes
4 Students
  • This summary

  • +380.000 other summaries

  • A unique study tool

  • A rehearsal system for this summary

  • Studycoaching with videos

Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven.

Summary - Class notes - Biological Psychology

  • 1412892000 Lecture 1 - Background

  • What did the Hippocrates claim?
    That the brain controlled intelligence and it was involved in sensation.
  • What did Aristotle argue in terms of the heart and the brain?
    He argued that the heart is the centre of the body, not the brain.
  • How does Aristotle's argument differ from today's view?
    Aristotle: the heart is affected by emotion 
    Today: the brain is central to emotional processing and production 

    Aristotle: The brain is not connected with the sense organs
    Today: Sensory connections are neural, not vascular
  • What did Descartes argue was in the brain?
    The mind (he believed the mind controlled the brain).
  • What was Descartes main argument?
    Dualism - the philosophical position that behaviour is controlled by two entities i.e mind and body are separate. 
  • What did Gall argue in terms of the mind and brain?
    The brain is the organ of the mind
  • What did Gall argue in terms of the shape of the brain?
    The shape determined your personality (although there was a lack of scientific proof for this).
  • What did Karl Kleist develop?
    A functional map of the cerebral cortex from case notes of WW1 head-wound casualties. 
  • What did Golgi and Cajal disagree on?
    Golgi - the nerve cells acted like the blood vessels of the body (wrong view)
    Cajal - nerve cells are separate entities with their own functions (correct view) 
  • What did Bailey & von Bonin find?
    Different parts of the brain are connected.
  • What does the frontal lobe do in terms of our behaviour?
    It is the 'breaks' of our behaviour.
    (Phineas Gage had damage to his frontal lobe = he couldn't control his behaviour - he showed that the brain did control personality)
  • What is the general function of the left hemisphere? 
    Language processing 
  • What is the general function of the right hemisphere?
    Spatial awareness 
  • What does MRI study?
    Brain anatomy using water molecules 
  • What does fMRI study?
    Studies brain function by tracking blood flow in the brain 
  • What does EEG look at?
    Brain waves
  • 1412978400 Lecture 2 - The Neuron and the Action Potential

  • What is the gap between neurons called?
    The synapse 
  • What are chemically passed between neurons?
    Electrical impulses
  • What do ion pumps and ion channels control?
    They control the movement of ions into and out of the cell
  • What two forces determine the movement of ions?
    Concentration and electrical charge
  • Where are anions located in a neuron?
    They are inside the cell - inside of cells are electrically more negative compared to the outside of the cell.
  • Different ions have different ion channels.
  • Ion channels and the resting membrane potential
    • At rest, sodium ion channels are closed. Therefore, sodium is not free to move across the membrane
    • However, some potassium ions are open. This allows potassium to move into and out of the cell
    • Potassium (K+) is attracted into the cell because the cell is more negative inside compared to the outside
    • Potassium is also attracted out of the cell because there is less potassium outside the cell
    •                                             = the two forces are at equilibrium 
  • What does the movement of the potassium ions when the neuron is at rest show?
    That the electrical gradient and the concentration gradient cannot both be satisfied = equilibrium 
  • What is the equilibrium potential of K+? What does this show?
    This shows that inside of the cell is still negative compared to the outside when K+ reaches equilibrium (at rest, a neuron has more positive ions outside the cell than inside the cell) 
  • What does the sodium potassium pump cause? How?
    At rest, the cell is negatively charged. The sodium potassium pump causes this imbalance by continually pumping, pushing out 3 positive sodium ions out of the cell, and pumping two positive potassium ions into the cell. 
  • What does the imbalance caused by the Na/K pump allow in terms of currents and impulses?
    It allows the flow of ions to create a current which causes a nerve impulse = ACTION POTENTIAL
  • What is the Resting Membrane Potential?
  • Where are action potentials generated?
    The axon hillock, if the net change is above the threshold, 50mv. (the action potential is then propagated down the axon to the presynaptic terminals)
  • Sodium and the rise of the action potential
    • When a cell is stimulated above threshold (-50mv which allows for an action potential), sodium ion channels open
    • Sodium is attracted into the cell because there is more Na+ outside than inside and also because the cell is negatively charged 
    • The influx of positive ions causes the cell to become more positive 
  • Potassium and the fall of the action potential
    • The loss of potassium causes the cell to become more negative 
    • When the action potential reaches its peak, the cell becomes positively charged 
    • Potassium ions are therefore attracted to the negative outside the cell
  • What is happens during hyperpolarization? 
    Positive ions leave the cell (inside of the cell becomes even more negatively charged than it was before)
    All voltage gates shut and the sodium & potassium pumps start, making sure there is more sodium on the outside of the cell and more K+ inside 
  • What happens during depolarization?
    All the Na+ ions run inside the cell, making the cell more positive (+40)
  • What happens during reploarization?
    After depolarization which left the cell at +40mv, the potassium channels (that only open at +40mv) open and potassium rushes out of the cell
  • What order does hyperpolization, depolarization and repolarization come in?
    1. Resting
    2. Depolarization 
    3. Repolarization 
    4. Hyperpolarization
    5. Resting 
  • What kind of axons conduct action potentials faster?
    Myelinated axons
  • Another action potential cannot be generated until the preceding potential has finished 
  • Strength of stimulus is indicated by...
    Increased firing rate of action potentials
  • What happens when the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal?
    A neurotransmitter is released into the synapse
  • What two effects can the neurotransmitter have?
    Excitatory or inhibitory
  • What is the function of dendrites? 
    Collecting information from other cells.
  • What are glial cells?
    They provide support, helping neurons to transmit information by providing support, nutrients and protection
  • How are glial cells different from neurons?
    They can replace themselves 
  • What are the five major types of Glial cells and their functions?
    Ependymal cell - makes and secretes cerebrospinal fluid; found on the walls of the ventricles in the brain.

    Astrocyte - star shaped; provides structural support to neurons in the central nervous system and transports substances between neurons and blood vessels.

    Microglial cell - defensive function; along with schwann cells they play a part in repairing damage to the peripheral nervous system

    Oligodendroglial cell - asymmetrical; forms myelin around CNS axons in the brain and spinal cord

    Schwann cell - asymmetrical; wraps around peripheral nerves to form myelin
  • What two kinds of cells compose the nervous system?
    Neurons - transmit information 
    Glia - support brain function
Read the full summary
This summary. +380.000 other summaries. A unique study tool. A rehearsal system for this summary. Studycoaching with videos.

Latest added flashcards

Culture, seen in many animals and specialised in humans, is a result of:a) languageb) television c) brain plasticity d) learning 
c) brain plasticity 
Dramatic deficits in implicit memory will be seen following lesions of the: a) entorhinal cortexb) parietal cortexc) amygdalad) basil ganglia  
d) basil ganglia  
What is the name given to the form of signalling done by action potentials in myelinated axons?a) myelinated propagation b) white matter ionization c) saltatory conduction d) none of the above 
c) saltatory conduction 
What system only projects ipsilaterally to the brain?a) somatosensory system b) olfactory system c) auditory systemd) visual system 
b) olfactory system 
A drug that increases the effectiveness of neurotransmission is referred to as an (a):a) psychoactive drugb) agonist c) antagonist d) precursor chemical 
b) agonist
If potassium channels are blocked, the influence on graded potentials will bea) no effectb) less hyperpolatizationc) more hyperpolarizationd) less depolarisation
b) less hyperpolatization
Patient H.M. had which brain region removed to control his severe epilepsy?a) frontal lobeb) posterior-parietal lobec) medial-parietal lobed) medial-temporal lobe
d) medial-temporal lobe
The amount of neurotransmitter released from a single vesicle is known as:a) quantum b) granule c) single unitd) vesicular unit 
a) quantum 
Korsakoff's syndrome is caused by a deficiency of which of the following?a) potassium b) vitamin Cc) thiamine d) neuropeptides 
c) thiamine 
With regard to anatomical locations and orientation, what is the opposite direction of caudal?a) coronal b) superiorc) rostral d) ventral 
c) rostral