Summary Class notes - Biological Psychology

Course
- Biological Psychology
- N/A
- 2014 - 2015
- University of Durham
- Psychology (applied)
571 Flashcards & Notes
4 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Biological Psychology

  • 1412892000 Lecture 1 - Background

  • What did the Hippocrates claim?
    That the brain controlled intelligence and it was involved in sensation.
  • What did Aristotle argue in terms of the heart and the brain?
    He argued that the heart is the centre of the body, not the brain.
  • How does Aristotle's argument differ from today's view?
    Aristotle: the heart is affected by emotion 
    Today: the brain is central to emotional processing and production 

    Aristotle: The brain is not connected with the sense organs
    Today: Sensory connections are neural, not vascular
  • What did Descartes argue was in the brain?
    The mind (he believed the mind controlled the brain).
  • What was Descartes main argument?
    Dualism - the philosophical position that behaviour is controlled by two entities i.e mind and body are separate. 
  • What did Gall argue in terms of the mind and brain?
    The brain is the organ of the mind
  • What did Gall argue in terms of the shape of the brain?
    The shape determined your personality (although there was a lack of scientific proof for this).
  • What did Karl Kleist develop?
    A functional map of the cerebral cortex from case notes of WW1 head-wound casualties. 
  • What did Golgi and Cajal disagree on?
    Golgi - the nerve cells acted like the blood vessels of the body (wrong view)
    Cajal - nerve cells are separate entities with their own functions (correct view) 
  • What did Bailey & von Bonin find?
    Different parts of the brain are connected.
  • What does the frontal lobe do in terms of our behaviour?
    It is the 'breaks' of our behaviour.
    (Phineas Gage had damage to his frontal lobe = he couldn't control his behaviour - he showed that the brain did control personality)
  • What is the general function of the left hemisphere? 
    Language processing 
  • What is the general function of the right hemisphere?
    Spatial awareness 
  • What does MRI study?
    Brain anatomy using water molecules 
  • What does fMRI study?
    Studies brain function by tracking blood flow in the brain 
  • What does EEG look at?
    Brain waves
  • 1412978400 Lecture 2 - The Neuron and the Action Potential

  • What is the gap between neurons called?
    The synapse 
  • What are chemically passed between neurons?
    Electrical impulses
  • What do ion pumps and ion channels control?
    They control the movement of ions into and out of the cell
  • What two forces determine the movement of ions?
    Concentration and electrical charge
  • Where are anions located in a neuron?
    They are inside the cell - inside of cells are electrically more negative compared to the outside of the cell.
  • Different ions have different ion channels.
  • Ion channels and the resting membrane potential
    • At rest, sodium ion channels are closed. Therefore, sodium is not free to move across the membrane
    • However, some potassium ions are open. This allows potassium to move into and out of the cell
    • Potassium (K+) is attracted into the cell because the cell is more negative inside compared to the outside
    • Potassium is also attracted out of the cell because there is less potassium outside the cell
    •                                             = the two forces are at equilibrium 
  • What does the movement of the potassium ions when the neuron is at rest show?
    That the electrical gradient and the concentration gradient cannot both be satisfied = equilibrium 
  • What is the equilibrium potential of K+? What does this show?
    -90mv
    This shows that inside of the cell is still negative compared to the outside when K+ reaches equilibrium (at rest, a neuron has more positive ions outside the cell than inside the cell) 
  • What does the sodium potassium pump cause? How?
    At rest, the cell is negatively charged. The sodium potassium pump causes this imbalance by continually pumping, pushing out 3 positive sodium ions out of the cell, and pumping two positive potassium ions into the cell. 
  • What does the imbalance caused by the Na/K pump allow in terms of currents and impulses?
    It allows the flow of ions to create a current which causes a nerve impulse = ACTION POTENTIAL
  • What is the Resting Membrane Potential?
    -65mv
  • Where are action potentials generated?
    The axon hillock, if the net change is above the threshold, 50mv. (the action potential is then propagated down the axon to the presynaptic terminals)
  • Sodium and the rise of the action potential
    • When a cell is stimulated above threshold (-50mv which allows for an action potential), sodium ion channels open
    • Sodium is attracted into the cell because there is more Na+ outside than inside and also because the cell is negatively charged 
    • The influx of positive ions causes the cell to become more positive 
  • Potassium and the fall of the action potential
    • The loss of potassium causes the cell to become more negative 
    • When the action potential reaches its peak, the cell becomes positively charged 
    • Potassium ions are therefore attracted to the negative outside the cell
  • What is happens during hyperpolarization? 
    Positive ions leave the cell (inside of the cell becomes even more negatively charged than it was before)
    All voltage gates shut and the sodium & potassium pumps start, making sure there is more sodium on the outside of the cell and more K+ inside 
  • What happens during depolarization?
    All the Na+ ions run inside the cell, making the cell more positive (+40)
  • What happens during reploarization?
    After depolarization which left the cell at +40mv, the potassium channels (that only open at +40mv) open and potassium rushes out of the cell
  • What order does hyperpolization, depolarization and repolarization come in?
    1. Resting
    2. Depolarization 
    3. Repolarization 
    4. Hyperpolarization
    5. Resting 
  • What kind of axons conduct action potentials faster?
    Myelinated axons
  • Another action potential cannot be generated until the preceding potential has finished 
  • Strength of stimulus is indicated by...
    Increased firing rate of action potentials
  • What happens when the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal?
    A neurotransmitter is released into the synapse
  • What two effects can the neurotransmitter have?
    Excitatory or inhibitory
  • What is the function of dendrites? 
    Collecting information from other cells.
  • What are glial cells?
    They provide support, helping neurons to transmit information by providing support, nutrients and protection
  • How are glial cells different from neurons?
    They can replace themselves 
  • What are the five major types of Glial cells and their functions?
    Ependymal cell - makes and secretes cerebrospinal fluid; found on the walls of the ventricles in the brain.

    Astrocyte - star shaped; provides structural support to neurons in the central nervous system and transports substances between neurons and blood vessels.

    Microglial cell - defensive function; along with schwann cells they play a part in repairing damage to the peripheral nervous system

    Oligodendroglial cell - asymmetrical; forms myelin around CNS axons in the brain and spinal cord

    Schwann cell - asymmetrical; wraps around peripheral nerves to form myelin
  • What two kinds of cells compose the nervous system?
    Neurons - transmit information 
    Glia - support brain function
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