Summary Class notes - Cross Cultural Management

- Cross Cultural Management
- -
- 2019 - 2020
- Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam)
- International Business Administration
261 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Cross Cultural Management

  • 1548630000 Chapter 1

  • What is cross-cultural management?
    The study of the behaviour of people in organisations located in cultures and nations around the world
  • What does Cross-cultural competence require?
    1. Knowledge of other people's beliefs, values and attitudes
    2. The ability to appreciate and respect other people's feelings
    3. The capacity to adapt one's own behaviour to the 'lore of the land'
    4. The ability to reflect on one's own sensitivities and tacit cultural predispositions
  • What is CCC built up of according to Zakaria?
    1. Cultural awareness
    2. Cultural sensitivity
    3. Cultural adroitness
  • What are the 4 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) categories?
    1. Drive - capability to direct attention and energy toward learning about and functioning in situations characterised by cultural differences 
    2. Knowledge - of norms, practices, and conventions in different cultures acquired from education and personal experiences
    3. Strategy - mental processes that individuals use to acquire and understand cultural knowledge including knowledge of, and control over, individual thought process
    4. Dexterity - capability to exhibit appropriate verbal and nonverbal actions when interacting with people from different cultures
  • What are the different types of definition of culture?
    1. Topical - culture consists of everything on a list of topics considered cultural e.g. social organisation, religion and economy
    2. Historical - culture as social heritage that is passed on to future generations
    3. Behavioural - culture is hared, learned human behaviour
    4. Functional - Culture is the way humans solve problems of adapting to the environment or living together   
    5. Structural - culture consists of patterned and interrelated ideas, symbols and behaviours
    6. Normative - culture is a set of ideals, values, norms, laws and rules for living
    7. Mental - culture is a complex of ideas, or learned habits, that curtail impulses (social control) and distinguish people from animals
    8. Symbolic - culture is based on arbitrarily assigned meanings that are shared by a community
  • Through what stages does culture evolve according to Tylor?
    1. Savagery
    2. Barbarism
    3. Civilisation
  • What is Geertz' definition of culture?
    Culture is a historically transmitted fabric of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about, and their attitudes toward life (symbolic/historical definition)
  • Why is Geertz' definition of culture preferred?
    1. It does not presuppose functionality
    2. It is historical
    3. It allows internal paradox 
    4. It aims to uncover the self-understanding of members
    5. It stresses language as the vehicle of this self-understanding
  • What are the 2 paradigms in social science?
    1. Positivism
    2. Social constructionism
  • What are the characteristics of positivism?
    1. Hypothetico-deductive model (preferably quantitative)
    2. Both natural and social reality are ruled by causal laws, that are valid no matter our knowledge of them
    3. Social science must follow the example of the natural sciences to discover the laws of human behaviour and interaction
    4. The truth of scientific knowledge is not dependant of the recognition of humans. Reality doesn't care what we believe
  • What are the characteristics of social constructionism?
    1. Interpretive (hermeneutic) model (largely qualitative)
    2. Social reality depends largely on the meaning that we bestow on it. We enact our world views in our behaviour
    3. Reality is not objective, but intersubjective (reflects shared fantasies)
    4. Social science tries to capture the sense making work (vocabulary) that people engage in to justify their behaviour. Something can only be true within the context of such vocabularies
  • What issues were there during culture studies?
    1. Until 1960, anthropology disregarded issues of method
    2. Ethnocentrism vs cultural relativism 
    3. The position of the researcher was problematised
    4. The etic/emic distinction debate
  • What are the 3 most prominent changes in the global landscape?
    1. Evolution from intermittent to continual change
    2. Isolation to interconnectedness
    3. Biculturalism to multiculturalism
  • What 3 challenges does the shift from biculturalism to multiculturalism pose for managers?
    1. Unclear which culture to adapt to
    2. Little time to learn about other cultures
    3. Multicultural meetings increasingly occur virtually
  • What are global management skills?
    The combination of managerial competence and multicultural competence
  • What is multicultural competence?
    The understanding of, and effective work across cultures
  • What are the cultural paradigms of the colonial expansion geopolitical era?
    1. Evolutionism
    2. Strong ethnocentrism 
    3. Etic
  • What is the difference between emic and etic insights?
    Emic insights are obtained through research from within the researched group, while etic insights are gained by observing the researched group from the outside
  • What are the important geopolitical eras?
    1. 19th century (EU) - Colonial expansion
    2. 1900-1960 (UK) - Maintenance of colonial power
    3. 1900-1960 (US) - Focus on American native cultures
    4. 1950-1990 (UK/US) - Neo-evolutionism
    5. 1950 (FR/US) - Decolonisation 
    6. 1970 (US/EU) - Decolonisation
    7. 1990 (US/EU) - Globalisation
  • What are the important cultural paradigms for the 'maintenance of colonial power' geopolitical era?
    1. Structural functionalism
    2. Moderate relativism
    3. Etic
  • What are the important cultural paradigms for the 'focus on American native cultures' geopolitical era?
    1. Historical particularism
    2. Strong relativism
    3. Emic
  • What are the important cultural paradigms for the 'Neo-evolutionism' geopolitical era?
    1. cultural ecology, conflict and interaction
    2. Moderate relativism
    3. Etic
  • What are the important cultural paradigms for the 'decolonisation (FR/US)' geopolitical era?
    1. Structuralism
    2. Strong relativism
    3. Etic
  • What are the important cultural paradigms for the 'decolonisation (US/EU)' geopolitical era?
    1. Postmodernism
    2. Strong relativism
    3. Emic
  • What are the important cultural paradigms for the 'globalisation' geopolitical era?
    1. Organisational culture
    2. Moderate relativism
    3. Etic
  • What is Tylor's definition of culture defined as?
  • What is Benedict's definition of culture defined as?
  • What is Schein's definition of culture defined as?
  • What is Hofstede's definition of culture defined as?
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What needs to be paid attention too by leaders to manage teams?
1. Tasks and processes
2. Select members on the basis of skills
3. Provide clear direction
4. Build positive team culture
5. Build team camaraderie
6. Tie rewards to performance
7. Recognise and build on differences
8. Frequency of face time vs. dispersed task fulfilment
9. Information sharing vs. individual discretion
10. Individual autonomy and team supervision
11. Team composition and dominant coalitions
12. Recognising challenges of and building on diversity
What are the challenges of dispersed global teams?
1. Work better when tasks require less interaction and ambiguity is relatively low
2. Interpersonal styles, communication and body language easily go undetected
3. Computer-mediated team dynamics are less overt (depending on media richness) and more prone to misunderstanding
What are the requirements to achieve (global) team synergy?
1. Clear, engaging purpose
2. Performance goals and measures
3. People 
4. Results-driven processes
5. Preparation and practice
What are the disadvantages of global teams?
1. Less close-knit groups
2. More time needed to reach consensus and to implement solutions
3. Culturally induced conflicts and misunderstandings
What are the advantages of global teams?
1. More creative and innovative in developing ideas and solutions
2. Give time more comprehensive, realistic and acceptable decisions
3. Better understanding of culturally diverse co-workers and global markets
4. More effective in working with customers from different cultures
What is a global team?
A group of heterogeneous employees from two or more countries, and sometimes two or more companies, who work together to coordinate, develop or manage some aspect of a firm's global operations.
What is ISDS?
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
What has ISDS arbitration been criticised for?
1. Legitimacy (ad hoc tribunals)
2. Transparency (secret proceedings)
3. Consistency (lack of development of a recognised body of law)
4. Independency/impartiality of arbitrators (private individuals without formal authority)
What are the general ways to settle disputes?
1. Litigation (in court)
2. Settlement (out of court)
3. Mediation (by trusted third party)
4. Arbitration (by pre-assigned party)
What are the characteristics of contracts under the doctrine of changed circumstances?
1. Contracts follow personal relationships (particularism)
2. Contracts are general and flexible, they are based on changing circumstances 
3. Contracts are short, general and personalistic 
4. Contracts are backed by personal integrity, trust and relationships