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Summary - Class notes - Exercise Immunology
1504476000 Introductie in de exercise physiology
Which chronic diseases benefit from clinical exercise therapy?
- Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
- Rheumatoid Artritis
- Alzheimer's Disease
- Interstitial lung disease
- Cardiovascular Diseases
- Ageing and Frailty
What is the main idea about the immune system in the involvement of the immune system in chronic diseases?The immune system fails OR is overactive
What is the main aim of Clinical Exercise Physiology?Twofold
- Improve movement performance
- Improve mobility and rehabilitation
(Human) movement has effect on multiple levels of organisation, which levels?
Which 5 chemical 'messengers' are involved in exercise and immunity?
- Growth factors
What is the main difference between hormones and cytokines?Hormones orginiate from particular groups of cells (glands) and are low in concentrations, whereas cytokines can be released from any cell, usually immune cells, rapidly, enabling strong fluctations in the blood concentrations.
Cells can signal eachother with hormones, growth factors, cytokines, steriods and adipokines. Recently, a 6th category has been discovered, what is this category?Exosomes, which are small RNA-strings shipped by tiny microvessels
Whether organs can crosstalk via their signalling molecules, the influence of soluble factors of myotubes on osteoclast formation was investigated. What was the conclusion?Myotubes secrete soluble factors (IL-6) that inhibit osteoclast formation and therefore affect bone metabolism.
Which two characteristics are strongly related with morbidity and mortality?Loss of muscle mass and mitochondria
Exercise can be seen as a medicine (treatment)
Exercise can be seen as a protective guard (preventive)
What can be said about the relation between cell size and oxidative capacity?It is an inverse hyperbolic relationship. Cell size goes up than oxidative capacity goes down.
- Ca2+ stimulation
- protein import
- holoenzyme assembly
How are muscle cells stimulated to start transcription and translation?
- stretch sensitive Ca2+ channels
- mechanical sensors in integrins/dystroglycans
- NO channels
Which growth factors are Ca2+ reliant?
What kind of steroid does the muscle cell activate upon self activation?Vitamin D
The ER proteins are different than cytoplasmic proteins... What makes them different?These proteins are packed in vessicles which can be shipped inside the cell (lysosome) or secreted outside the cell or attached to the cell (Receptors)
What makes the ER proteins so important in terms of sensitivity?ER proteins are needed to make and ship receptors.
What happens to the endoplasmatic reticulum when it cannot handle 'stress'?It activates the cascades that activate eIF2a (stop translation in ER) and activates caspase (apoptosis).
How likely is apoptosis by a muscle cell?Not very likely, a muscle cell is highly nucleated and they will probably not shutdown all together.
Mechanical loading causes:
- Activation of transcription factors
- Expression of growth factors and cytokines
What are the effects on IGF-1 and MGF and the differences in effect of eccentric, concentric and isometric contractions?eccentric: high IGF-1 mRNA, highest MGF mRNA
concentric: low IGF-1 mRNA, middle MGF mRNA
isometric: high IGF-1 mRNA, high MGF mRNA
high Calcium also increases IGF-1 mRNA
myostatin is most reduced after eccentric exercise
What is the effect of myostatin?Myostatin inhibits the proliferation of myoblasts and satelite cells
On which cells do MGF act?On satelite cells only!
What is the main difference between IGF-1 and MGF?IGF-1 acts on muscle cells, MGF acts on satelite cells.
What makes myostatin a potent therapeutical?myostatin is muscle-made-only and has an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Myostatin can act in an paracrine and endocrine way which enables myostatin to elicit effects far from home.
Growthfactors muscle made:
How is HGF activated?By tissue damage, HGFA, the activation enzyme, is already locked to muscle cells in the basal lamina. After sensing tissue damage they are released.
What is the effect of HGF?Proliferation of satellite cells and liver cells, it is activated by tissue damage (HGFA is released by muscles)
What do exosomes contain?
- fatty acids
What is the effect of IL-6 on bone?IL-6 enhances osteoclast formation.
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What is the main effect of adiposity on atherosclerosis?
Adiposity increases the amount of FFA and cholesterol that can be oxidized and cause foam cell formation.
Why do conventional risk factors for Cardiovascular diseases not decrease that much in RA?
Because it probably has a large portion of inflammation in it.
How can you easily activate the adaptive immune system?
By applying a non-self antigen
How do B cells responds to antigen stimulation?
production of IFN-g and antibodies
Why use mice over rats in a swimming experiment?
Mice are easier to breed and most of antibodies for immunization are developed on mice.
Can B cells present antigens?
Yes o yes
What is the effect of adiponectin on cells?
It activates AMPK which promotes mitochondrial biosynthesis
Where does the high increase in IL-6 after exercise come from?
From the muscle, possibly by NO increase due to sheer stress by fluid flow.
What can be concluded from the parabiotic experiment?
It may be a more systemic effect than just the local place of action.
Why is the proliferation of old satelite cells lower than younger?
old niche has more fibroblasts and fat cells (pro-inflammatory)