Summary Class notes - Food Quality Analysis and Judgement

Course
- Food Quality Analysis and Judgement
- Bolhuis
- 2021 - 2022
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Food Quality Management
250 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Food Quality Analysis and Judgement

  • 1609628400 Introduction to FQAJ

  • Why is high quality food needed to satisfy consumer?
    • Consumers decide what to buy based on their preferences. 
    • Consumer decides on food quality 
  • Demand oriented supply chain:  5 most important quality aspects according to consumers?
    • Sensory (taste, odour, texture)
    • Health
    • Convenience 
    • Process characteristics ( organic, fair trade)
    • Shelf life
  • What is the of Definition Quality control?

    Quality control maintains desired quality in
    product and process by measuring product properties and processes, comparing with standard, and taking necessary corrective action to ensure final quality meet consumer needs and legal requirements. >> Reduce variation 
  • What are elements of Food Quality Analysis Cascade?
    1. Variation/Decay
    2. Food Quality Attributes
    3. Measurements of food properties 
    4. Interpretation Judgement 
    5. Decisions
    6. Food Quality 
  • What are the steps of Quality Control circle?
    • Measuring 
    • Comparing with target values
    • Regulation: direction of correction
    • Corrective action 
  • What is effect of Safety issue?
    Safety issues always lead to recalls, e.g.
    • Chemical hazard
      • Pieces of metals
      • Pesticides
    • Microbiological hazard
      • Bacteria, virus, yeast 
  • Food Quality Analysis: Food Quality
    What is the ideal product according to consumers ?

    > Take the consumer as starting point of the food quality Attributes
  • What are the cause of variation?
    • Variation in food behavior ( eg. Potatoes, oil)
    • Variation in human behavior ( eg. Time of harvesting)
    • Variation in technological processes ( interaction of food and human behavior) ( e.g. Temperature of frying) 
  • What is the meaning of 'Food behaviour'?
    • Includes the natural variation of composition of foods
  • Give 5 examples of time depended food processes:
    • Microbiological: growing of bacteria
    • Physical: Changes in physical product state over time
    • Chemical: Transformation of a set of chemical substance into new substance over time. Eg. Oxidation 
    • Biochemical: Enzymatic processes like browning of bananas
    • Physiological : changes in product composition ( chilling injury)
  • What are causes of variation regarding human behavior?
    • Variability in individual decision-making behavior
      • personal characteristic, individual differences 
    • Variation in the existing conditions in company
      • People, Organization, information  
  • What are causes of variation regarding technological processes?
    Food processing and production: 
    •  Adjusting time-temperature conditions
    • Frying temperature/time 
    • Equipment used
    • Packaging conditions
    • etc. 
  • What does the consumer quality perception consist of?
    • Intrinsic attributes 
    • Extrinsic attributes 
  • What are 5 intrinsic attributes of consumers regarding quality perception?
    • Safety
    • Health
    • Sensory
    • Shelf life 
    • Convenience 
  • What are Extrinsic attributes of consumer regarding quality perception?
    • Production systems characteristics
    • Attributed quality by marketing/communication 
  • 1609714800 Sensory Science - Introduction

  • For what is sensory evaluation used?
    Human sense are use as instruments to evaluate/measure foods
  • What are the five senses?
    • Sight
    • Smell
    • Touch (mouthfeel)
    • Taste
    • Hearing
  • Difference 'Sensory vs instrumental' measurements?
    • Instrumental: Brix/pH/ NaCI etc. 
    • Sensory: Perceived 'saltiness'; 'sweetness'
  • Why sensory measurements in quality control?
    • Instrumental measure cannot predict human perception of food. 
      • Multisensory perception
      • Especially odour is difficult to measure instrumently 
  • What is chain of perception?
    Instead of stimulus response: Sensory experience > Interpreted against frame of reference > evaluated relative to expectations
    •  E.g. Sweetness perception changes when adding salt. 
  • What are six basic tastes?
    1. Bitter
    2. Sour
    3. Sweet
    4. Salt
    5. Umami (savoury)
    6. Fat (fatty acids are detectable) 
  • What is function of six basic tastes in taste system?
    • Attractive 
      • Sweet
      • Salt
      • Umami
    • Attractive/unattractive
      • Sour
    • Aversive taste qualities
      • Bitter 
      • Fat 
  • Smell: General description (3 basic)
    • Smell in:
      • food, perfumes, pheromones, environmental/industrial irritations
    • No clear division in smell qualities, but categorizations are proposed
    • Easy to recognize, difficult to name.  
  • Ortho vs retronasal smell.
    • Otrhonasla (smell) ; retronasal ('taste'; after chewing, swallowing) 
      • Smell is often confused by taste:  eg. Choclatoe, fruits etc.  
  • What is difference between Taste and Smell perception
    • Taste
      • 6 basic taste
      • Easy to recognize
      • Many different intensities
      • Strongly link to nutrition 
    • Smell
      • endless substances/qualities
      • Difficult to recognize
      •  Few different intensities
      • Strongly related to memory and emotional link
  • What do you about Mouthfeel (touch)?
    • Somatosensory system 
    • Related to receptors in body, density in mouth larger. 
    • Stimulated by physical impacts
  • What do know of sense of sight: vision
    • Colour and apperance are primary indicator of food quality
      • Strongly associated with expectations
      • influence perceptions of other sensory modalities. 
  • Bias sensory
    Is disproportionate weight in favor of or against an ide or thins, usually in a way is closed-minded, prejudicial or unfair.
  • What are three basic sensory test?
    1. Discrimination
    2. Descriptive
    3. Affective 
  • What are basics of Discrimination test?
    1. Are there difference?
    2. Analytic
    3. Panel sometimes trained
    4. Test: Triangle, Duo-trio and Paired-comparison 
  • What are basics of Descriptive test ?
    1. How different?
    2. Analystic
    3. Panel is trained
    4. Test: VAS and Spiderweb 
  • What are basics of Affective test?
    1. How well liked?
    2. Hedonic
    3. Panel is untrained
    4. VAS and Hedonic 
  • What are 3 examples Discriminations test?
    • Triangel test: Choose sample that is most different ( A B A )
    • Duo-trio test: Choose sample that matches the reference ( A test A B)
    • Paired-comparison: which sample is sweeter ? ( A or B )
  • How do to correct the for choosing the sample by chance ?
    • Use high number of panelist
    • Repeat within panellist 
  • Type 1 in sampling
    “Finding by change” – they happen when the tester validates a statistically significant difference even though there isn't one. 
  • Type 2 in sampling
    False negative, not enough power (increase sample size)
  • Type 1 and 2 error
    Zie afbeelding 
  • What is example of a Visual analogue scale (VAS)?
    • How sweet is the taste of this product?
      • Not sweet at all ------------------- Extremely sweet 
  • Where for Descriptive analyses is used?
    • Characterisation of food products 
    • Test differences between products and sho what is different 
      • The panel should be trained, to minimize variation. 
  • Why a trained panel and how to select?
    • Trained panel function as instrumetns to measure prodcut difference
      • Reduce variation in responses and smaller groups are sufficient
    • Select a trained panel:
      • Screening -> taste, odour, texture sensitivity
      • Training -> 'calibrate' intensities 
      • Validation -> eveulate panel performance 
  • Why do use Affective/hedonic tests?
    • To quantify the degree of liking or dislinking of a product 
    • Used especially for new product development
    • Use naive consumers -> target population, large sample sizes 
  • What is a 9- point Hedonic scale ?
    0      0       0      0     0     0     0     0     0
    Dislike extremely                                 Like extremely 
  • What is difference between analytic(Discrimination and Descriptive) and hedonic tests(Affective)?
    • Analytic tests
      • Intensity/differences of indivuidual attributes
      • Strong control, high interal validilty 
      • Reliabity, sensitivity
    • Hedonic/affective test
      • as a whole
      • weaker control, higher external vialidity
      • predicitve of real life 
  • Where sensory test in companies used for?
    • Quality Control
    • New product develpment: Is the food prefereed over similar foods of competirors 
  • When you the 'blue' ; measuring, analysis, judgement, decision-making model. What are they advanced options?
    • Advanced measurement tools
    • Laboratory analysis/ calculation
    • Scientific discussion
    • Decision support systems
  • When you the 'blue' ; measuring, analysis, judgement, decision-making model. What are they simple options?
    • Personal observations
    • Framing
    • Judgmental Heuristics  
    • Rules of thumb 
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When you the 'blue' ; measuring, analysis, judgement, decision-making model. What are they simple options?
  • Personal observations
  • Framing
  • Judgmental Heuristics  
  • Rules of thumb 
When you the 'blue' ; measuring, analysis, judgement, decision-making model. What are they advanced options?
  • Advanced measurement tools
  • Laboratory analysis/ calculation
  • Scientific discussion
  • Decision support systems
What is meant by accelerated shelf life testing, whenand why it is relevant to perform?
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What is the use of the Arrhenius equation and the Q10 value?
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what is shelf life and which factors theoreticallydetermine shelf life?
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What theme beyond measuring and modelling in shelf life?
  • the consumer handling and use is a important shelf life influencing factor 
  • Must be done to improve consumer handeling and use of food
  • Shelf life is determined on commercial circumstance, may be longer based on technological consideration alone. 
What does the Weibull model?
  • Describe failure times that is shelf life
  • It calculates the probability of a products failure by (threshold) parameters
What to know about empirical modelling of shelf life?
  • Product do not fail exactly at same time
    • You create ;probability model 
  • Failure time: when consumption becomes unacceptable 
  • Life of a product: when product performs satisfactorily 
Sensorial shelf life influenced by?
  • Chemical, biochemical and microbial changes causing flavour changes
  • Physical and biochemical changes causing texture changes
  • Diffusion causing texture changes 
  • (sensorial shelf life is difficult to model)
What type of testing can you use for shelf-life?
  • Analytical test(product-oriented): difference discrimination tests
  • Qualitative test, for example descriptive analysis
  • Hedonic test (consumer-oriented): preference and acceptability test


  • Defining Faulure criteria