Summary Class notes - GEN-21803

- GEN-21803
- Sijmen Schoustra
- 2019 - 2020
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
307 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - GEN-21803

  • 1589148001 Puzzel C1

  • Enzyme that can 'glue together' (join end to end) DNA molecules.
  • Another word for egg cells and sperm cells
  • A nucleotide that forms a double hydrogen bond with its complement in DNA
  • Variations on a gene
  • The idea that continuous traits are controlled by multiple Mendelian genes is called the ... Hypothesis
  • Deciphering the exact nucleotide sequence of DNA molecules
    DNA sequencing
  • Three nucleotides coding for a specific amino acid
  • This is regulated by regulatory elements
    Gene expression
  • .... Can copy DNA
    DNA polymerase
  • The DNA sequence to which the regulatory protein is bound in figure 1-9
    Regulatory element
  • What QTL stands for
    Quantitative trait locus
  • Study of complete gene sets
  • The process by which a copy of the DNA is produced
    DNA replication
  • Complementary to cytosine
  • Most of your cells are ...
    Somatic cells
  • Species used in experimental biology in order to learn about groups of species
  • An organism with foreign DNA inserted in its own DNA
  • Abbreviation of single nucleotide polymorphism
  • Opposite of recessive
  • Figure 1-7 depicts a model in which one gene encodes one ...
  • A common view on inheritance before the genetics revolution began
    Blending theory
  • A change of one nucleotide in the DNA to another
  • The process of inserting foreign DNA into organisms
  • Fitting together like pieces of a puzzle, in this case with hydrogen bonds
  • Theory proven by Morgan when he demonstrated genes are on chromosomes
    Chromosome theory
  • Enzyme that can cut DNA
  • Complementary to guanine
  • Fundamental unit of biological information
  • What this course is all about
  • RNA synthesis from a DNA template
  • Template for protein synthesis
    Messenger RNA
  • Polypeptide production
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(jaartal....) Mendel presented his laws of inheritance




genes and alleles
What is the formula for broad-sense heritability?Explain this formula in words.
H^2 = Vg / Vg + Ve

the total phenotypic variance in a population is based on the environment (e) and genetics (g);
the broad-sense heritability is the fraction of the total phenotypic variance that is due to genetics.
Can you conclude from the high H^2 of height that the considerable variation in height between e.g. People from North-Korea and the Netherland is mostly due to genetics?
No, H^2 calculated for one population cannot be used to interpret differences to other populations. In North-Korea both environment and genetics are different to that in the Netherlands.
For which trait in humans is the broad-sense heritability highest and for which one lowest?Explain the meaning of this variation in broad-sense heritability?
  1. Highet for "height" ; lowest: "speed of information acquisition"...
  2. Differences in height in human populations are mainly  based on genetic differences within the population, not on environmental differences
Hardy-Weinberg law -- Deviation (from random mating)assortative mating =disassortative mating =
Assortative mating = mating with a partner that is similar

disassortative mating = mating with a partner that is dissimilar

als je een van deze twee hebt geldt hardy-weinberg niet meer
WHy are there no codons in the intron?
Introns are spliced out, so it is not in the mature mRNA and will not be translated
pyrosequencingHow are the DNA strands in step 1 obtained?why is there a PCR reaction in step 2?why is each bead placed in a single well in step 3?
  1. This is e.g. Genomic DNA (to make sure the whole genome is sufficiently represented a high coverage is needed), or exomic (only exons, for protein encoding genes) ....
  2. to amplify the fragment so that a stronger signal will be obtained in the following reactions
  3. you want to study individual beads for whether a base is incorporated or not
The cloning and molecular characterisation of entire genomes.
The F1 is uniform but the backcross (BC1) offspring is highly variable.Why do we call this a backcross?Does this suggest that the parents Beefmaster and Sungold are homozygous parents?Is fruit size a quantitative trait?
  1. The F1 is back-crossed to the Beefmaster parent
  2. Yes
  3. Yes, the fruit of the segregating BC1 plants show continuous variation in size.
What would the value for h^2 have been if in part b mu were 1.25? And what if mu were 1.63?
If mu of the next generation were 1,25, there would have been no response to selection (R=0) en h^2 would be 0

If 1.63, R=0,38 and h^2 = 1