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Summary - Class notes - GEN-21803
1589148001 Puzzel C1
Enzyme that can 'glue together' (join end to end) DNA molecules.Ligase
Another word for egg cells and sperm cellsGametes
A nucleotide that forms a double hydrogen bond with its complement in DNA
Variations on a geneAlleles
The idea that continuous
traitsare controlled by multiple Mendeliangenes is called the ... Hypothesis Multifactorial
Deciphering the exact nucleotide sequence of DNA moleculesDNA sequencing
Three nucleotides coding for a specific amino acidCodon
This is regulated by regulatory elementsGene expression
.... Can copy DNADNA polymerase
The DNA sequence to which the regulatory protein is bound in figure 1-9
What QTL stands forQuantitative trait locus
Study of complete gene setsGenomics
The process by which a copy of the DNA is producedDNA replication
Complementary to cytosineGuanine
Most of your cells are ...Somatic cells
Species used in experimental biology in order to learn about groups of speciesModelorganism
An organism with foreign DNA inserted in its own DNAGMO
Abbreviation of single nucleotide polymorphismSNP
Opposite of recessiveDominant
Figure 1-7 depicts a model in which one gene encodes one ...Enzyme
A common view on inheritance before the genetics revolution beganBlending theory
A change of one nucleotide in the DNA to anotherPointmutation
The process of inserting foreign DNA into organismsTransformation
Fitting together like pieces of a puzzle, in this case with hydrogen bondsComplementary
Theory proven by Morgan when he demonstrated genes are on chromosomesChromosome theory
Enzyme that can cut DNANuclease
Complementary to guanineCytosine
Fundamental unit of biological informationGene
What this course is all aboutGenetics
RNA synthesis from a DNA templateTranscription
Template for protein synthesisMessenger RNA
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(jaartal....) Mendel presented his laws of inheritance
genes and alleles
What is the formula for broad-sense heritability?Explain this formula in words.
Can you conclude from the high H^2 of height that the considerable variation in height between e.g. People from North-Korea and the Netherland is mostly due to genetics?
H^2 calculated for one population cannot be used to interpret differences to other populations. In North-Korea both environment and genetics are different to that in the Netherlands.
For which trait in humans is the broad-sense heritability highest and for which one lowest?Explain the meaning of this variation in broad-sense heritability?
Highetfor "height" ; lowest: "speed of information acquisition"...
- Differences in height in human
populationsare mainly based on genetic differences within the population, not on environmental differences
Hardy-Weinberg law -- Deviation (from random mating)assortative mating =disassortative mating =
als je een van deze twee hebt geldt hardy-weinberg niet meer
WHy are there no codons in the intron?
pyrosequencingHow are the DNA strands in step 1 obtained?why is there a PCR reaction in step 2?why is each bead placed in a single well in step 3?
- This is e.g.
GenomicDNA (to make sure the whole genomeis sufficientlyrepresented a high coverage is needed), or exomic(only exons, for protein encodinggenes) ....
amplifythe fragment so that a stronger signal will be obtained in the following reactions
- you want to study individual beads for whether a base is incorporated or not
The cloning and molecular characterisation of entire genomes.
The F1 is uniform but the backcross (BC1) offspring is highly variable.Why do we call this a backcross?Does this suggest that the parents Beefmaster and Sungold are homozygous parents?Is fruit size a quantitative trait?
F1is back-crossed to the Beefmasterparent
- Yes, the fruit of the segregating
BC1plants show continuous variation in size.
What would the value for h^2 have been if in part b mu were 1.25? And what if mu were 1.63?
If mu of the next generation were
1,25, there would have been no response to selection (R=0) en h^2 would be 0
If 1.63, R=
0,38 and h^2 = 1
If 1.63, R=