Summary Class notes - H&F

Course
- H&F
- prof
- 2014 - 2015
- V
- psy
353 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - H&F

  • 1425164400 College 1

  • What is the history plan?
    - mechanizing of the world: science as prection and control; world as mechanism (clockwork)
    - Philosophical roots: Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Kant: consciousness, knowledge, empiricism vs rationalism
    - the rise of scientific, experimental psychology
    - psychology in Europe (psychology as human science; Gestalt)
    - psychology in America (evolution, pragmatism, functionalism)
    - behaviorism, psychoanalysis (turning away from consciousness)
  • What was the worldview and the look on knowledge and science in the Middle ages?
    World view: universe as an organism, with a function meaning
    Knowledge and science: authority, speculation, reasoning, no experiment or observation. Qualitative explanation, essence
  • Medieval society:
    early middele ages: static
    fixes social strata
    agriculture, no trade, no money

    from 13th century: dynamic
    trade, banks, market, capitalism, profit
    social mobility, cities
    technical innovations

    scientific revolution
  • What were the causes of the scientific revolution?
    - commercial: banks, trade, travel
    - demografic: urbanisation, social mobility
    - technical: printing, magnet/compass, gunpowder
  • What beholds the scientific revolution?
    -> new interest in counting and measuring: quantitative explanations, medieval qualitative explanation useless, technology, manipulation
    -> practically usefull science

    Warfare, transport: what are the laws of movement?
    Trade: arithmetic, measuring volumes?
  • Some new ideas were humanism and atomism, explain them
    1 free enquiry (onderzoek): Humanism: Freedom of enquiry, free from authority of theology and chruch, independent reasoning and observation
    2. Source of mechanistic worldview: atomism: alle properties reducible to properties of the smallest indivisible parts (=atoms)
  • Explain elementarism, materialism
    analysing material things in elements
  • Scientific revolution after middel ages
    -> practical applications, predcitions, quantitative explanations
    -> beginning of the modern ideal of scienceL mechanisation, materialism, mathematics
  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    New physics: quantitative, mathematucal explanations (not qualitative)
    Experiment, mathematics

    Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
    Principia mathematica (1687)
    Laws of nature, founded in mathematics
    Mathematics ideal knowledge
  • The world as mechanism: mathematics
    Galileo: - nature understood in mathematical terms
                  - laws are connections between phenomena, prediction and control
    Newton: basic laws of physics, mathematical formulae
  • The world as mechanism: experiment
    Experiment: control and exploit nature:
    - manipulating nature
    - quantitative measurement 
    - findings laws, i.e. (mathematical) relations between observations (not speculating on the essence; 'how' things behave, not 'what' they are
  • The world as mechanism: astronomy
    - voyages of discovery: practical application of astronomy  
    - Copernicus: heliocentric worldview (sun center)
       Galileo: observation of the celestial sphere (telescope)

    --> the same (mechanical & mathematical) laws of nature apply throughout all of nature, including the heavens
                         ''celestial mechanics''
  • The world as mechanism: clockwork
    analysis in components, taking the mechanism apart is a strategy of explanation - elementarism
  • World as mechanism summary
    Knowledge:
        - knowledge is power
        - experiment, manipulation, measurement
       - prediction and control
       - knowledge of causes and effects, laws
       - analysis, dissection, elemtarism, materialism

    Worldview: machine, clockwork metaphor, mechanism (not organism)
  • What are three characteristics of Bacon (1561-1626)?
    Empiricism, positivism
    - first statement of the new ideal (hard, emperical), science
    - observation is the only legitimate source of knowledge
    - normative philosophy of science (positivism): methods and prescriptions for good science (against prejudices and illusions)
  • What was the method of Bacon?
    Inductive method: no theories, no mathematics, no dedcutions, only observed facts
    Induction: from observations to generalisations, and laws

    'knowledge is power' 
    experiment: 'put nature on the rack' 
  • Which 4 characteristics beholds the new science?
    - Observation and manipulation, prediction and control
                                                   --> experiment
    - Laws of nature, in mathematical formulae
    - Materialism, elementarism (atomism)
    - Deism: no intervention by god
  • World as mechanism - How about humans?
    Hobbes: body and vital processes are also mechanisms
  • Mind: secondary qualities
    Natural science is about primary qualities, intrinsic to real objects (form, weight, wave length etc.)
    Psychology is about secondary qualities: subject-dependent (taste, color, smell, etc)
  • What are primary qualities?
    in things themselves
  • What are secondary qualities?
    Effect on perceiver, subject-dependent properties (=qualia)
  • Difference between mental and physical reality requires a distinct domain for psychology
    Psychology as a science, investigating consciousness
  • Take home message: on the origins of modern subjective science
    - Modern ideal of science originates in the Renaissance: observation, manipulation, experiment; practical; quantitative
    - Mechanism, clockwork metaphor, mathematical language
    - Bacon: hyper- empericism; knowledge as power
    - Objective facts, found by observation
    - Secondary qualities: effect on mind - how to study the mind?
  • What are three characteristics of rationalism?
    - emphasis on activity in the mind
    - centralism --> knowledge comes from the inside
    - development determined by innate aptitudes (Nature)
  • What are three characteristics of empiricism?
    - emphasis on content of consciousness
    - peripheralism --> knowledge comes from outside
    - development determined by learning (nurture)
  • What are three characteristics of Descartes (1596-1650)?
    Rationalism, mechanism, dualism mind-body
  • What are three characteristics of the rationalism of Descartes?
    - rationalism: principles of (indubitable) knowledge from reason, not from senes
    - mathematucs, analytic (Cartesian) geometry is a product of reasoning, is certain undubitable knowledge
    - methodic doubt: system of knowledge built from basic principles (axioms); philosophy as basis of knowledge system
  • What are the two characteristics of the mechanism of Descartes?
    - mechanism: nature, body, animals are machines, automata, movement is hydraulics
    - 'cartesianism' was label for mechanicist worldview (prohibited in some European universities)
  • Dualism of mind and matter:
    - mind (consiousness) is immaterial and indivisble
    - matter is extension in space, explained by mechanistic and mathematical principles  
  • What was the spreuk van Descartes?
    I think, therefore I exist, cogito erg sum
  • Descartes: methodic doubt gives certainty
    Cogito ergo sum, certainty in the mind (rationalism)
    - cogito is starting point for further reasoning and system-building
    - secure foundation for a complete system of knowledge (tree with philosophy as roots, physics as trunk, technology as branches
    - foundationalism, 'quest for certainty' are characteristics for later developments in philosophy of science
    - method of doubt shows secure foundation; cogito cannot be doubted
    - ideas of God and perfection guarentee that clear and distinct ideas, and evident ideas (res cogitans, res extensa; mathematics) must be true ( since God is perfect, he cannot deceive us)
  • What is methodic doubt?
    Method to seek for real certainties by reasoning
  • A rationalist know his own mind better than his body and the world
  • Clear and distinct ideas are a criterion for truth, name the three things
    1. cogito: things that think --> res cogitans
    2. world: spatially extended thing --> res extensa
    3. god cannot deceive, mathematucal evidence
  • What is res extensa?
    being spatially extended is the defining charactieristc of matter.
    matter can be explained in mechanistic and mathematical way --> mechanistic worldview
  • Explain reflex and mechanism
    relfex ia mechanistic and mechanism is not consciouss
  • What is the reflex model?
    'animal spirits' move through nerve ducts
  • What is an animal?
    only res extensa, mechanism, not conscious (no res cogitans) (bete machine), deterministisch
  • Mind-body dualism: pineal gland connects body and mind
  • What is the res cogitans?
    Not spatially extended, not material, conscious, not deterministic, no law
      - indivisble, immaterial unity, independent from material body
      - cogito includes thought, free will, morality, rationality: characteristic for      
         persons (freedom and responsibility)
      -reason controls behaviour (passions), supresses emotions (rationality vs emotion, 'cool     reason')
     - mind can see itself; clear and distinct ideas; directly 'given' and accesible to     introspection by the mind
  • What is the cartesian theatre?
    immaterial inner world, filled with 'ideas', representations, mental processing
  • Cartesian theatre:
    Ideas directly given in introspection
    Descartes view of a man is 'a ghost in the machine'
  • What is the homunculus (little man) problem?
    Who is doing the inner processing, seeing etc?
  • psychophysical problem: mind-body interaction?
    Descartes: mind makes contact with the nervous system in the pineal glad (epiphysis), regulates nervous fluids through the brain (animal spirits) but how can consciousness work on material brain structure? this is onclear
  • Descartes legacy and psychology
    Focus on consciousness (cognition, ideas, mental content) main subject of psychology
    Method: introspection (of mental content in Cartesian theatre)
    Psychophysical problem (ghost in the machine)
    Emotion strictly seperated from intellect (damasio: descartes' error)
  • What are the four characteristics of Descartes?
    - methodical doubt provides secure foundation for knowledge: cogito, ideas, mathematical evidence
    - consciousness (cognition, ideas, mental content) main subject of psychology
    - Cartesian theatre, introspection
    - psychophysical problem, dualism
  • Review Question 1: What are the most important characteristics of mechanism?
    - useful knowledge, solving problems
    - control, manipulation, exploit of nature
    - quantitative knowledge, based on mathematics (not qualitative)
    - empirical observation and experiment (not authority and argument)
    - causal explanation, laws of nature
  • Review question 2: Explain in what way Descartes was a mechanist
    Descartes was a mechanist with respect to material things.
    - Matter (res extensa) can be explained in an mechanistic and mathematucal way
    - Body (animals) functions as mechanism, heart is a pump, nerves are hydraulic ducts
    - Reflex; (neuro)anatomy; vision (camera obscura); emotions as

    Descartes was not a mechanist with respect to the mind, free will, rational thought:
    - Mind is beyond mechanistic explanation; dualism
    - Pineal gland connects mind and body (how?)
    - Free will controls emotions
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Latest added flashcards

What is hermeneutic understanding?
empathy: understanding meaning for a subject --> verstehen
What is a problem of D-N explanation?
flagpole problem --> show that not every deduction is a real explanation
in social sciences: always interpreting behaviour --> so laws and causes are not very adequate/ useful in psychology
what is deductive nomological explanation?
subsuming under a general law
Which 3 kinds of explantions are there?
- deductive- nomological explanations
- hermeneutic understanding
- functional explanation
What is operationalization?
defining concepts of measurent
In which steps is justification?
3 &4; deducing a prexrion from a theory, testing hypothesis
In which steps is discovery?
1,2,5; observation, hypothesis, evaluation
What is the empirical cycle?
1. observation
2. induction, abduction --> hypothesis
3, deducing a prediction from a theory
4. testing hypothesis
5. evaluation--> hypothesis: revised theory
What is theory-ladenness?
theory infleunces observations, there is nu such thing as pure observation
What is the intermediate category of the two contexts?
heuristics: about finding rules and guidelines for discovery (abduction) --> not totally normative but also not only creative