Summary Class notes - Hormones & Homeostasis

Course
- Hormones & Homeostasis
- .
- 2015 - 2016
- Amsterdam University College
- Liberal Arts & Sciences
492 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Hormones & Homeostasis

  • 1454367600 intro

  • What are the most important principles in endocrinology?
    • Hormone secretion
    • Hormone action
    • Principlesof feedback control
  • Which kind of membrane receptors do you have?
    • G-protein-coupled
    • Ionotropic receptors
    • steroid receptors
    • Kinase-linked receptors
  • How is the endocrine system evaluated?
    By measuring hormone concentrations
  • How are endocrine disorders amendable to effective treatment?
    • deficiencies are treated with physiological hormone replacements
    • excessive conditions like benign/malignent glandular adenomas (cancer)
  • What is the modern definition of an hormone?
    • productions does not necessarily take place in glands (gut)
    • other signals come from nearby cells (paracrine) or the own self (autocrine) of are from nutrition
    • many hormone receptors are not considered as endocrine targets
    • The classic production in glands, secretion in the bloodflow and binding on targets does still apply for some hormones
  • Which two types of hormones are there?
    1. Growth factors
    2. Sex steroids which leads to epiphysial closure
  • What are the most important hormones in the regulation of the homeostasis?
    1. TH
    2. Cortisol
    3. PTH (regulates Ca2+ and F2)
    4. Vasopressin
    5. Mineralocortoids
    6. insulin
  • What are the main functions of hormones?
    • Growth and differentiation
    • Maintainance of the Homeostasis
    • Reproduction
  • Which hormone is most important during child rearing?
    Oxytocin
  • What is the field of endocrinology concerned with?
    • biosynthesis
    • storage
    • chemistry
    • physiological function
    • the productive cells and tissues
  • The endocrine organs

    Brain
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary

    Body
    • Parathyroids
    • Thyroids
    • Adrenals
    • Pancreas
    • Ovaries
    • Testes
  • What are the classes of hormones?
    • Amino acids derivates
    • Small neuropeptides
    • Larges proteins
    • Steriods hormones
    • Vitamine derivates
  • What kind of amino acid derivates do you have?
    • single
    • tripeptides
    • small
    • intermediate size
    • complex and glycoproteins
  • Give an example of a purine.
    adenosine
  • Why can hormones derived from other chemicals be especially detrimental to health?
    Because they're made by the body itself and stimulate oxygenradicals.
  • Which three kinds of endstations can a posttranslated protein cover?
    1. embedded in the membrane
    2. stored
    3. secreted
  • Of which hormone is the hormone POMC a precursor?
    ACTH
  • Many hormones are embedded in larger polypeptides which are proteolytical and therefore inactive.
  • Most hormones in the body are inactive, and only activated at the right stimulus.
  • How can pheromonal secretion best be described?
    these hormonales are volatily secreted to attract or repel other organisms
  • What kind of autocrine hormonal actions do you have?
    • binding at the own outer membrane
    • binding at the own nuclear membrane 
  • Do you need a receptor for the re-uptake of an hormone?
    No you do not
  • What kind of autocrine hormonal actions do you have?
    • binding at the outer membrane
    • binding at the nuclear membrane
  • Hormones are mostly bound to albumin and/or globulin
  • When is a hormone physiologically inactive?
    When it is bound to a larger polypeptide like globulin or albumin
  • What is the difference between a hormone and a neurotransmitter?
    neurotransmitter has a specific location
    hormones haven't got a specific location
  • Which kind of hormones can pas the cellmembrane with ease?
    lipophilic hormones
  • remember the 5 types of hormonalreceptors
  • Which kinds of hormones are lipophilic?
    steroids
  • Is the transport of glucose osmosis?
    yes
  • What is the most important form of oestrogen?
    oestradial
  • When measuring growth hormones: what does a snapshot test of this hormone tell you?
    close to zero about the person. You have to control for the circadian rythm of the hormones.
  • What is the relationship between ACTH and cortisol?
    ACTH has a concordance with cortisol in which a rise in ACTH is followed by a rise in cortisol.
  • Which three possibilities do you have when your hormonal mechanisms are pathological?
    • Excessive production
    • deficiency production
    • resistance
  • Which kind of pathological mechanism has it's core problem in the receptors?
    Hormonal resistance
  • How is homeostasis regulated?
    By positive and negative feedback
  • What is the goal of a physician in a clinical setting?
    Helping you to retain your homeostasis.
  • How does the HPA-axis work in the adrenal glands?
    • CRH
    • ACTH
    • Cortisol (neg)
  • What is the downside of prescription of prednison?
    prednison works as Cortisol and relieves the production of Cortisol by the own body. The adrenal glands shrink and stop producing cortisol. Never use prednison for a prolonged time.
  • What kind of systems work on G-protein coupled receptors?
    • adenylate cyclase system
    • inositol triphosphate system
  • How does the adenylate cyclase system work?
    • G-protein couples with hormone
    • G-protein activates adenylate cyclase which turns ATP into cAMP
    • cAMP activates a protein kinase
    • cAMP is then broken down by phosphodiesterase
  • How does the inositol triphosphate system work?
    • G-protein activates PLC
    • PLC catalyzes hydrolysis of PIP2 into IP3 and DAG
    • IP3 generates Ca2+ in the ER
    • Ca2+ and DAG promote PKC migration to the cellmembrane
  • What do thyroid receptors do when the target hormone is absent?
    They bind to the DNA, succesfully repressing transcription.
  • Where are the beta-thyroidreceptor mainly expressed in the body??
    In the brain, especially the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary.
  • What do almost all disease have in common?
    They are failures of homeostasis.
  • What is the main role of a physician?
    Help regaining and maintaining homeostasis.
  • Give an example of a positive feedback system in the endocrine system.
    • estrogen on the ovary and back
    • oxytocin during delivery
    • prolactine feedback during brestfeeding
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Latest added flashcards

When do you operate in Primary hyperparathyroidism?
  • Serum Ca2+ > 1mg/dl
  • 24hr urine Ca2+ is normal
  • Creatinine clearance <60ml/min
  • bone density T < -2.5
  • Age under 50
How can hypercalcemia due to a malignancy be diagnosed?
Low PTH and high Ca2+
What action does Vitamin D have in pregnant women?
It promotes Ca2+ metabolism favouring the embryo..
Where in the body is Vitamin D stored?
In the liver
What is the action of Calcitonin on the blood Ca2+ concentration?
It lowers the release of Ca2+ of tissues and therefore lowers [Ca2+] in the blood.
Why do sea-animals have high serum levels of Calcitonin?
Because the waters are high in Ca2+ concentrations and therefore organisms need to lower their Ca2+ levels actively.
In what way do PTH and Calcitonin differ?
PTH stimulates Ca2+ release and Calcitonin inhibits Ca2+ release.
What does calcitonin do?
It inhibits the Ca2+ resorption
What is the importance of Phosphate to Calcium and boneformation?
P stimulates Ca2+ resorption by the bone.
Name some causes of Hypoparathyroidism.
  • hypocalcemia
  • PTH deficiency
  • surgeric failures of the tyroid gland