Summary Class notes - Human Development

- Human Development
- Sabine Spijker
- 2018 - 2019
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Biomedische Wetenschappen
538 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Human Development

  • 1549234800 2. The reproductive system in males

  • What are gonads?
    Gonads produce gametes and hormones.
  • What are ducts?
    Ducts receive and transport gametes.
  • What are accessory glands?
    Accessory glands secrete fluids into ducts.
  • What are the external genitalia of the male?
    The external genitalia of the male are the penis, urethra and scrotum.
  • What is the gonad of the male?
    The gonad of the male are the testes.
  • What is the pathway of spermatozoa?
    Spermatozoa travel from testis within epididymis; to ductus deferens; to ejaculatory duct  and penile urethra. Fluids are secreted from the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethal glands.
  • Why are spermatozoa placed 'outside' of the body?
    Spermatozoa like to develop 1 degrees celsius colder than the body temperature of 37 degrees celsius. The testes are located in the scrotum to have this colder temperature.
  • What is the structure of the testis?
    The testis consist of seminiferous tubules and connective tissue.
  • What happens in the seminiferous tubules?
    In the seminiferous tubules, the sperm is made.
  • What do seminiferous tubules contain?
    Seminiferous tubules contain spermatogonia and sustentacular (Sertoli) cells.
  • What are spermatogonia?
    Spermatogonia are stem cells for sperm.
  • What are sustentacular (Sertoli) cells?
    Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells sustain and promote development of sperm.
  • What are the two types of male germ cells (spermatogonia)?
    Type A: duplicate themselves via mitosis. This is symmetric division.
    Type B: develop into sperm via meiosis. This is asymmetric division.
  • What causes variability in meiosis? Why is this necessary?
    Recombination causes variability in meiosis. This is necessary to increase genetic variation.
  • What are the 5 steps in spermatogenesis?
    1. Spermatogonia divide by mitosis
    2. Primary spermatocytes
    3. Secondary spermatocytes
    4. Spermatids
    5. Spermatozoa
  • What is spermiogenesis?
    Spermiogenesis is the physical maturation. It is the development of spermatids into spermatozoa.
  • What is the acrosomal cup? What does it contain?
    The acrosomal cup is the fusion of the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus. It contains enzymes to penetrate the egg (hyaluronidase & acrosin).
  • Why does sperm lack organelles?
    It reduces size and mass and it must absorb nutrients from the surrounding fluid.
  • What is the anatomy of a spermatozoon?
    A spermatozoon contains a head, neck, middle piece, and tail.
  • What does the head of a spermatozoon consist of?
    The head of a spermatozoon contains the nucleus and chromosomes.
  • What does the neck of a spermatozoon consist of?
    Contains centrioles (anterior: mitotic spindle; posterior: continuous microtubules for movement of flagellum).
  • What does the middle piece of a spermatozoon contain?
    Contains mitochondria (= energy!) of original spermatid.
  • What is the importance of the tail of a spermatozoon?

    It is a whip-like organelle that moves a spermcell from 1 place to another. It has a complex, corkscrew motion.
  • What is the function of the blood-testis barrier?
    The blood-testis barrier isolates seminiferous tubules from immune system.
  • What is the function of FSH in males?
    • Targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis
    • Causes secretion of androgen binding protein (and inhibin)
  • What is the function of LH in males?
    It causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens.
  • What is the function of inhibin in males?
    It inhibits FSH production, suppresses GnRH secretion, and speeds up sperm development.
  • What is the function of androgen-binding protein (ABP)?
    ABP prompts the spermatogenic cells to bind to and concentrate testosterone.  The concentrated testosterone then stimulates spermatogenesis.
  • By what are sustentacular cells stimulated?
    • FSH
    • Testosterone
  • By what are interstitial cells stimulated?
  • What do stimulated interstitial cells produce?
  • What is typical about spermatozoa leaving the testes?
    Testes produces physically mature spermatozoa that can NOT fertilize an egg.
  • How are sperm moved after leaving the testes?
    Sperm cells are incapable of ‘locomotion’ or fertilization. They are moved by cilia lining efferent ductules (epi-didymis).
  • What are 3 functions of the epididymis?
    • Monitors and adjusts fluid produced by seminiferous tubules
    • Stores and protects spermatozoa until use: facilitates functional maturation by addition of specific proteins necessary for fertilization
    • Recycles damaged spermatozoa
  • What is capacitation?
    Capacitation describes the changes that happen to sperm in the female reproductive tract. These changes allow the sperm to be able to fertilize the egg.
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While growing up, children become better at judging emotions, and their source. How is this possible?
  • Balance between external (environment) and internal (brain development)  factors
  • Recognize that thinking and feeling are connected
  • Conflicting cues are taken into account (pretending)
  • Understand mixed emotions (more than 1 emotion at the same time; happy & sad)
What are the differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system?
  1. Location of ganglia (sympathetic: close, parasympathetic: far)
  2. Origin of fiber bundles
  3. Neurotransmitter
  4. Sympathetic: fight or flight vs parasympathetic: rest and digest
Why do a lot of fears disappear when a child is 5 years old?
At the age of 5 there is less fear because of use of logic & understanding and reference from before.
To what age do these fears match? Physical pain (fall), big dogs, darkness, death, loss of parent/caregiver
5 years old
To what age do these fears match?Darkness, thunder, loud noise, animals, strangers, separation caregiver, people who look ‘different’ (than they are used to), loss of grip,  loss of parent/caregiver (as they recognize themselves vs parents => emotional development)
4 years old.
To what age do these fears match?Darkness, thunder, loud noise, animals, strangers, separation caregiver, people who look ‘different’ (than they are used to)
3 years old
To what age do these fears match?Darkness, thunder, loud noise, animals, strangers or separation caregiver 
2 years old
What is used to examine memory (recent vs. remote) & knowledge of babies?
Habituation ('seen it before')
What are three sources of information for balance?
Three sources of information for balance:

  • Vestibular
  • Proprioception: sense your own body, sensory info from feet; often affected in elderly diabetes patients (peripheral neuropathy)
  • “Optical flow”: visual system
What is meant with REM sleep?
REM sleep: active brain in an inactive body, a lot of dreaming but you won’t remember it because you will go into another deep sleep stage after.