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Summary - Class notes - Humand and animal biology
1554674400 college 2 Phenotype
what is the definition of phenotypic plasticity ?the ability if an organism to adapt its phenotype in reaction to the changing environment
what are 2 categories of phenotypic plasticity that are relevant for human and animal biology?-development plasticity: not reversible, no variation within individuals, no bound to season
-phenotypic plasticity: reversible, variation within individual, no bound to season
what are 2 examples of phenotypic plasticity ?migrating birds and homing salmons
how does the Red Knot, a migrating bird, knows its time to leave?season, food supply
how does a Red Knot, a migrating bird, adapt to extreme conditions of long flights?heart is increased, digestive organs are decreased. Fat storage is lowered from 100 to 15/40 gram
-sleep is unclear!
what is the difference between a warm and cold climate in the body by migrating birds?-warm: 30% reduced BMR, increased blood to the feet, fat redistributing, expanding feathers
-cold: increased BMR and fat storage in skin for isolation
what are triggers for a bird to migrate?food, daytime, reproduction
The 'Bar headed goose (indische gans) flies at 5000-7000m with lower oxygen levels. How is this posible? name 5Bigger lungs, deep breathing, 30-40% more capillary network for the bigger heart and wing muscles, increased cardiac output/more efficient energy production, increased hemoglobin (binds oxygen)
Salmon are 'anadromous', what does this mean?(Gr. anadromos, run- ning upward); they spend their adult lives at sea but return to freshwater to spawn.
Salmons migrate from fresh water to sea water. To do this, they have to undergo 'smoltification'. What is Smoltification? How does the transition works?-preparation for migrating to sea water
-brackish water -> osmotic adaptation, increased nacl
-activation chemoreceptors, sends signals to the brain
How do the salmon cope with the physiological callenges in the sea? name 4Nacl pump -> active salt excretion, increased vasopressin, increased water retention in the kidneys, concentrated urine
what triggers the salmon back to fresh water (homing) and how does the salmon finds its way back?-reproduction, triggered by the environment
-navigation in the sea through the sun and magnetic fields
-it finds it way back through chemical signals affecting the olfactory system and hypothalamus (olfactory imprinting when it was young)
how is the transition from salty to fresh water for homing salmons?-brakish water: osmotic adaptation, decreased NaCl, sensed by chemoreceptors
- decreased vasopressin, water retention in the kidneys and diluted urine
-NaCl pump: increased active salt retention
what about the food intake of the homing salmon back in the river before spawning?no more food intake! energy reserves from the fat storage.
stomach degeneration, more room for the sperm/eggs
1554760800 college 3&4 Development/gene expression
what are the 5 fylotypic stages and what happens?1. Zygote: fertilized egg cell
2. blastula: during cleavages a blastula with blastocoel develops
3. gastrulation: formation of 3 germ layers via migration of cells and archenteron
4. organogenesis: neurolation incl formation of the 4th germ layer (the neural crest), formation of organs and initiation of growth
5. growth: reaching adult shape and size
During cleavages and blastula the vegital pole and animal pole develop, what are they?vegital pole: caudal side, contains more yolk
animal pole: the cranial side where the animal will develop
What are Isolecithal eggs and what kind of cleavage is this?little to no yolk, evenly distributed. -> holoblastic cleavage
What are mesolecithal eggs and what kind of cleavage is this?normal yolk, vegital pole. -> holoblastic cleavage
What are telocithal eggs and what kind of cleavage is this?a lot of yolk at the vegital pole. -> mesoblastic cleavage
what is gastrulation?-most important stage in development, cells rolling inwards
-ectoderm -> mesoderm -> endoderm
what happens during the first and second cleavage?2 ventral and 2 dorsal cells are formed (4 cells total)
what happens during the third/fourth cleavage?-animal/vegital pole are formed
- 8 cells in total -> 2 ventral micromeres, 2 dorsal micromeres, 2 ventral macromeres, 2 dorsal macromeres
what happens during late cleavages?-morula & blastula is formed
- blastomeres at the animal pole contain less yolk so they divide faster than blastomeres at the vegital pole -> this makes a wave like movement
what is the function of blastula cells in blastula stage?blastula cells surround the blastocoel (liquid filled hole)
during gastrulation there are 3 types of celmigratidon. What are they and what is the function ?1. epibolie: uitbreiding micromerekap
2. involutie: instroming cellen door oermond die blastocoel opvullen
3. convergentie: cellen bewegen richting the dorsal meridian
what is the neural tube and what does develop from the neural tube?-precursor to the central nervous system
-spinal cord and brains
what is the neural crest?these cells contribute to the creating of the peripheral neural system, precursor of the nerves
What kind of cleavages have these animals?
sea star - frog - worm - chick - mouse- Sea star: radial holoblastic cleavage, Isolecithal egg
- Frog: radial holoblastic cleavage, Mesolecithal egg Animal pole
- Nemertean worm: spiral holoblastic cleavage, Isolecithal egg
- Chick: discoidal meroblastic cleavage, Telolecithal egg
- Mouse: Rotational holoblastic cleavage, Isolecithal egg
what does the blastodisc contains and what does it mean?epiblast (formation of the embryo and the extra embryonic amnion ectoderm) and hypoblast (formation of ectoderm)
what are the 3 stages of neurulation?1. neural plate -> forms from ectoderm
2. neural groove
3. neural tube -> forms from the neural plate, the edges rise up, fold and join together. it forms the spinal chord and spinal motor nerves
what is the neural crest?the 4th germ layer, little migrating neural crest cells become the peripheral nervous system and strongly migration neural crest cells become monocytes in the skin
on what side is the neural crest in the body and why is that important?anterior in the body, important in shaping the 'vertebrate head'
what is the 'vertebrate head'?eyes, nose, ears, brains, skull
what is Chordate?everything that has a chord or notochord and that include all vertebrate animals
what is the thing with 'cephalonotochordata'?does not have migrating neural crest cells, chorda runs along from tail to head
what is the correct order of events in the development of the nervous system?1. cells migrate towards their final destination
2. cells differentiate to neurons
3. cells connect to their targets
4. cells regime the synapses
what are derivates of somite mesoderm?1. sklerotome: vertebrate
2. myotome: muscles
3. dermatome: dermis
what develops from the ectoderm? name 4epidermis, neural tube, neural crest cells
what develops from the mesoderm? name 4notechords, somites, intermediate mesoderm, lateral mesoderm
what develops from the entoderm?inner epithelium GI tract, inner epithelium lungs/liver/pancreas/testis/ovarium
what is cell induction?the concentration of a certain protein affects the development of cells
when we talk about activating numerous morfogenes that lead to initiating gastrula movements, differentiation of the dorsal mesoderm and induce of neural tube we talk about:function organizer
what is the Spermann-Mangold-organizer?-is present in amniotes
-determines the anterior-posterior axis
what does a morfogen do?regulate where and when proteins are synthesized
why do we possess genes?to synthesize the correct proteins
what is are 4 functions of proteins?-create other molecules needed
what happens when you change DNA?change proteine someone possesses
what is homeobox? and Homeotic?homeobox: a DNA sequences that enables proteins to bind to DNA
Homeotic: an adjective, used to name the genes that possess a homeobox and their mutations. transcription factors are synthesized by homeotic genes.
definition from the book: The homeobox produces the part of a protein that attaches to the DNA of other genes, activating or blocking their expression.
what are HOX-genes and when are they expressed?homeotic genes that shape the anterior-posterior axis.
first expressed during embryonic development, but remain expressed throughout adult life
in what 2 ways are hoxgenes homologous?-orthologous genes: homologous between species
-paralogous genes: homologous because how genes duplicated
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what are the functions of the skeleton?
- shape and posture of the body
- supports locomotion
- storing minerals Ca2+ and phosphor
- blood cell production in bone marrow
what is the difference between an axial and an appendicular skeleton?
- axial skeleton: includes skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs,
- appendicular skeleton: includes the limbs (or fins or wings) and pectoral and pelvic girdles
Name all the components of the eye of the shark?
Name the cranial nerves of the shark?
0 = n. terminalis
I = n. olfactorius
II = n. opticus
IV = n. trochlearis
V = n. trigeminus
VI = n. abducens
VIII = n. vestibulo-cochlearis IX = n. glosso-faryngeus
X = n. vagus ( L11)
III = n. oculomotorius
VII = n. facialis
what are the Aortic arches of the shark: lateral view?
s = spiracule; gill slit 1
2- 6 = gill slits
sv+a = sinus venosus and atrium
v = ventricle
ca = conus arteriosus
va = ventral aorta
I t/m VI = afferent branchial arteries (aortic arches)
1- 4 = efferent branchial arteries
da = dorsal aorta
ci = internal carotid vein
ce = external carotid vein
sa = spiracule artery
III = carotid arch
IV = aortic arch
VI = pulmonary arch
Name the components of the heart of the shark?
conus arteriosus ventral aorta
common cardinal vein
cartilage of the pectoral girdle
name the neurons in a shark?
name the components of the female shark?
Name the components of the male shark?
Name the veins of the shark in the abdominal cavity?
1. v. intestinalis anterior
2. v. intestinalis posterior
3. v. splenica posterior
4. v. gastrica
5. v. portae hepatis
6. v. hepatica