Summary Class notes - IB

Course
- IB
- Van Wissen
- 2016 - 2017
- Revius Lyceum - Doorn (Doorn)
- Klas 5 IB
459 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - IB

  • 1477432800 ILA en Literary terms

  • What is literature?
    Those pieces of writing which, even after the passing of time, still inspire admiration, reflection and emotion in readers. Literature is never static. For recent books it is the critics and not time that decide what is and what is not to be regarded as literature.
  • Why read literature?
    It is enjoyable, beautiful and meaningful. It can be an escape from daily life, a source of knowledge, and it gives information about the world we live in. It breaks down our personal barriers and stirs up our emotions. Summed up, it widens our field of vision.
  • Why analyse literature?
    Literary analysis is any attempt to understand a literary text by making careful observations and drawing conclusions. It entails discovering patterns of meaning and becoming aware of the writer's intentions. It is a way of learning more about how literary texts are structured. It provides vocabulary - definitions of terms such as setting to express en exchange opinions.
  • What is poetry?
    There are two important aspects: the arrangement of words on the page, and a special 'poetic' way of using language - poetry emerges from the interplay between the meaning of words and their arrangement on paper. Imagery, metaphors and symbols, rhyme, rhythm and repetition. Grammar and syntax are often ignored. It is an attempt to communicate about his emotional and intellectual response to the world that surrounds him.
  • Figures of speech
    Any use of language which deviates from the obvious or common usage in order to achieve a special meaning or effect.
  • Simile
    comparison of two different things by words as 'like' and 'as' - tenor: subject under discussion, vehicle: what the subject is compared to, ground: what do they have in common
  • Metaphor
    implied comparison without 'like' or 'as' - total identification. also has a tenor, vehicle and ground. a whole object is substituted by an idea.
  • Metonymy
    one thing is applied to another with which it is closely associated - the crown instead of the king
  • synecdoche
    a part of something is used to signify the whole
  • personification
    human characteristics are attributed to an animal, object or idea to make abstract ideas clearer to the reader, to bring complex abstractions to life, render them more interesting and make them easier to understand.
  • Imagery
    images are words or phrases that appeal to our senses. gustatory images: about tasting, visual images: about sight, aural images: about hearing, tactile images: about feeling. A writer uses an image to help us relive a sense experience that we have already had or have a new experience. We use the term imagery to refer to combinations or clusters of images that are used to create a dominant impression
  • Symbols
    a symbol is an example of the transference of meaning. an object gets a deeper meaning. symbols are open-ended. any interpretation of a symbol must be confirmed by the rest of the work
  • cultural or shared symbols
    dawn - hope, serpent - evil, etc. symbolic associations that are widely recognised and accepted.
  • literary or personal symbols
    do not have pre-established associations: the meaning emerges from the context.
  • identifying and understanding symbols
    principal techniques for creating symbols:
    -repetition: multiple references
    -emphasis
    -shared symbols
    symbol hunting, seeing symbolic importance where the writer did not intend it, should be avoided
  • Rhyme
    the effect that is created when a poet repeats the same sound at the end of two or more lines. functions:
    - musical quality
    - marks the end of each line
    - easier to remember
    - affects pace and tone
  • single-syllable or masculine rhyme
    beginning of the syllable varies, the rest stays the same: day/say, light/night
  • double-syllable or feminine rhyme
    matches two syllables or parts of the words: ocean/motion, pretending/bending
  • triple-syllable rhyme
    beautiful/dutiful
  • true or perfect rhyme
    rhymed sounds correspond exactly
  • imperfect rhyme, half rhyme or slant rhyme
    sound of the words is similar but not identical: loads/lids/lads, road/moan/boat
  • end rhymes
    fall at the end of the lines
  • internal rhymes
    occur within the same line
  • alliteration
    repetition of the same initial consonant sound in a sequence of nearby words.
  • assonance
    repetition of similar or identical vowel sounds in a sequence of nearby words containing different consonants
  • onomatopoeia
    the use of the sound of words to suggest the sound they denote: slamming, buzzing, ticking
  • rhythm
    writers build on the natural rhythms of language, putting words with the same stress pattern side by side and creating an underlying beat or rhythm in their work
  • metrical terms
    metre: the regular and rhythmic arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables found in poetry. 
    foot: basic unit of metre which consists of one stressed syllable and one or more unstressed syllables.
    iamb: one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable
    dactyl: one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
    monosyllable: one stressed syllable
  • scansion
    scansion is analysing metre:
    monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octameter.

    iambic pentameter most closely resembles natural speech: most used.    
    the rhythm may establish an atmosphere or create a tone, and deviations from the predominant metrical pattern may highlight key elements.
  • end-stopped line
    when a pause occurs naturally at the end of a line
  • enjambement or run-on line
    when the sentence extends into the next line
  • caesura
    when a strong break occurs in the middle of a line
  • Ballads
    short stories in verse, often accompanied by music, that belong to an oral tradition of poetry.
    -rarely tell a story from beginning to end
    -brief and conventional description
    -impersonal narrative
    -refrains, words, expressions, phrases and entire verses are repeated
    -stock descriptive phrases, easily to memorise
    -two or four line stanzas.
  • sonnet
    in a sonnet a poet expresses his thoughts and feelings in fourteen lines. theme: love, originated in Italy - Petrarch, Italian sonnet: ABBA-ABBA-CDC-CDC, octave is intro, sestet is comment and personal feelings, Shakespearian sonnet: ABAB-CDCD-EFEF-GG, first E is a break in the middle.
  • Layout
    the visual form a poem takes on a page. poems:
    -do not cover the full page
    -verses: groups of lines
    -stanzas: units of lines grouped into the same number of lines, same metre and same rhyming scheme
  • Concrete poetry
    The visual form of the poem is almost as important in conveying meaning as the verbal communication.
  • What is drama?
    Any work that is intended for performance by actors on a stage. 
    -actors: people interpreting the play
    -director: decides how it should be performed
    -audience: watches the performance
  • Set
    represents the place where the action takes place including props, stage furniture, objects, coloured backcloths, etc. naturalistic: when it represents real life, symbolic: when it tries to convey ideas or meaning
  • Lighting
    primary function: illuminate the actors and the stage. it focuses on a particular area of the stage, time of the day, creates atmosphere (warm, cold or eerie, etc)
  • Sound effects
    to make the production more realistic and credible, to create atmosphere or to underline particularly significant moments.
  • Dialogue
    two major functions: contributes to the telling of the story and reveals characters. 
    dialogue is the conventional technique playwrights use to give the audience information about the setting, the time, the characters and the action in a play. characters voice: unique style of speech - conclusions about personality and background.
  • soliloquy
    a theatrical convention in which a character speaks aloud to himself - other characters do not hear it. function: to convey directly to the audience the character's motives, intentions, innermost feelings or thoughts, to fill in parts of the story.
  • monologue
    usually shorter than a soliloquy and takes place in the presence of other characters who hear what is being said.
  • aside
    a character expresses his thoughts in a few words or a short passage that the other characters on the stage cannot hear
  • tone
    is an important part of speech because it conveys the speaker's attitude to what he is saying or who he is speaking to. Where tone is not mentioned in the stage directions, rhythm, punctuation, choice and arrangement of words are useful indicators - personality of speaker, attitude to the subject and person he is speaking to
  • Irony
    can be defined as saying something while you really mean something else. 
    verbal irony: contrast between what someone says and what he means
    situational irony: an event is the reverse of what is expected or appropriate
    dramatic irony: the audience knows things the characters do not know
  • stage directions
    allow the playwright to intervene in the text of a play and give instructions for its production. functions:
    -provide info setting and scenery
    -actions movements characters
    -tone
    -relationship between characters
    -characters' personality and feelings
  • What is fiction?
    any narrative in prose or verse that is entirely or partly the work of the imagination. it includes plays and narrative poems - mostly short story and novel. it most directly fulfils our innate need for storytelling.
  • Setting
    to refer to the general locale and the historical time in which a story occurs. the author focuses on elements of setting to create atmosphere or mood, or the setting plays a major role in shaping the characters' identity and destiny. if the setting is extensively described we can assume it is for more profound or symbolic purposes. it may reflect emotions or mood of the character, it may be ironic. it shapes the characters' identities and destinies - making people what they are
  • setting as a way of revealing character
    the manner in which a character perceives the setting may tell the reader more about the character and his or her state of mind than about the setting itself. the author uses an outer world to give insight to the inner world
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Summary - Class notes - IB

  • 1409781600 ILA + LT - A7

  • How can poetry be defined in one sentence?
    Poetry emerges from the interplay between the meaning of words and their arrangement on paper.
  • What is a figure of speech?
    The use of language which deviates from the obvious or common usage in order to achieve a special meaning or effect.
  • What is a simile?
    A figure of speech in which a comparison between two distinctly different things is indicated by the word 'like'  or 'as' He's like a bull in a china shop
  • Out of which three elements do similes and methapors consist?
    - The tenor --> the subject under discussion (he)
    - The vehicle --> What the subject is compared to (a bull in a china shop)
    - The ground --> What the poet believe they have in common (clumsiness) 
  • What is a metaphor?
    An implied comparison which creates a total identification between the two things  being compared. The words 'like' and 'as' are NOT used
  • What is metonymy?
    literally: change of name. When the term for one thing is applied to another with which it has become closely associated. e.g. The crown rather than the king
  • What is synecdoche?
    Literally: taking together. When a part of something is used to signify the whole. e.g. I'm reading Dickens rather than I'm reading a literary work written by Charles Dickens
  • What is personification?
    A form of comparison in which human characteristics are attributed to an animal, object or idea. e.g. The lion proudly surveyed his kingdom (because: pride is human characteristic)
  • What is the primary function of a personification?
    To make abstract ideas clearer to the reader. By attributing feelings and emotions to ideas, people tend to understand them more easily
  • What is literature?
    Those pieces of writing which, despite the passing of years and even centuries, still inspire admiration, reflection and emotion in readers.
  • Why isn't literature static?
    Writers, genres and styles have fallen in and out of favour throughout history. 
  • Why should we read literature?
    - It's enjoyable
    - Escapism
    - Provide information
    - Breaks down personal barriers (see from other point of view)
  • What are images?
    Words or phrases that appeal to our senses:
    - Visual (tree)
    - Aural (laughing)
    - Tactile (snow)
  • What is imagery?
    Combinations or clusters of images that are used to create a dominant impression. (death, corruption, disease in Hamlet)
  • What is a symbol?
    A concrete item with a deeper meaning
  • A symbol is open-ended. What does that mean?
    A given symbol will evoke different responses in different readers
  • What sort of symbols are there?
    1. cultural/shared symbols (white for innocence, heart for love, etc.)
    2. Literary or personal symbols (gestures, landscapes that may refer to the characters emotional state)
  • What is rhyme?
    The effect that is created when a poet repeats the same sound at the end of two or more lines. 
  • Why is rhyme important?
    1. It adds a musical quality 
    2. It marks the end of each line
    3. It makes the poem easier to remember
    4. It affects the pace and tone of the poem
  • Which types of rhymes are there?
    1. Masculine rhyme - Only one syllable rhymes (say/day light/night)
    2. Feminine rhyme - Two syllable match (ocean/motion pretending/bending)
    3. Triple-syllable rhyme - three match (beautiful/dutiful comparison/garrison)
    4. Perfect rhyme - The whole word rhymes (double/trouble)
    5. Imperfect rhyme - The words sound similar but are not (road/boat loads/lids/lads)
    6. End rhymes vs. internal rhymes (end of sentence vs. in sentence)
  • What is alliteration?
    The repetition of the same initial consonant sound in sequence of nearby words. (black and blue, safe and sound)
  • What is assonance?
    The repetition of similar or identical vowel sounds in a sequence of nearby words containing different consonants. (break/play, hope/spoke)
  • How does assonance add musical quality to a poem?
    - Open sounds like 'o', 'u' and 'a' slow the rhythm down
    - Slender sounds like 'i' and 'e' create a quicker pace
  • What is onomatopoeia?
    When the sound of the word suggest the sound they denote. (slamming, buzzing, ticking)
  • How do you create rhythm? 
    By putting words with the same stress pattern side by side
  • What is metre?
    The regular and rhythmic arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables found in poetry. 
  • What is a foot?
    The basic unit of metre. It consists of one stressed syllable and one or more unstressed syllables.
  • What are the most common feet?
    1. iamb (iambic) - 1 unstressed syllab. + 1 stressed syllab. (a | way)
    2. trochee (trochaic) - 1 stressed + 1 unstressed (fa | ther)
    3. anapest (anapestic) - 2 unstressed + 1 stressed (in | the | light)
    4. dactyl (dactylic) - 1 stressed + 2 unstressed (o | ver | the)
    5. monosyllable (monosyllabic) - 1 stressed (sky)
    6. spondee (spondiac) 2 stressed (rain | bow)
  • What is scansion?
    Analysing metre
  • How do you analyse metre?
    1. Count number of syllables
    2. Identify position of stresses or accents
    3. define line into feet
    4. Give name (iambic tetrameter (4), spondaic heptameter (7))
  • What is the rhythmic device 'end-stopped line'?
    When a pause occurs naturally at the end of a line
  • What is enjambement?
    When the sense of the sentence extends to the next line 
    e.g. 
    The room was
    full of life
  • What is caesura?
    When a strong break occurs in the middle of a line 
    e.g. 
    its loveliness increases; it will never
    pass into nothingness
  • What is a ballad?
    A short story in verse, often accompanied by music, that belong to an oral tradition of poetry. 
  • What are the 5 characteristics of a ballad?
    1. They rarely tell a story from beginning to end (start at climax)
    2. Description is brief (no info about characters)
    3. Narrative is impersonal (motives behind actions remain unexplained)
    4. Refrain
    5. Stock descriptive phrases (milk-white steed, gallant knight)
  • What is a sonnet?
    1. A little song in which the poet expresses his thoughts
    2. 14 lines
    3. 8 lines introduce subject, 6 lines writer's opinion
    4. ABBA ABBA CDC CDC 
  • What is the rhyming scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet?
    ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
  • What is layout?
    The visual form a poem takes on a page. 
  • What is a stanza?
    Repeated verses with the same number of lines
  • What is drama?
    Any work that is intended for performance by actors on a stage. 
  • Why is a set so important for a play?
    It gives information about when the play is set, but it also creates expectations for what is going to happen. 
  • What are the two major functions of dialogue in a play?
    1. It contributes to the telling of the story
    2. It reveals characters
  • What is soliloquy?
    A theatrical convention in which a characters speaks aloud to himself. No one hears this. It is used to convey his innermost feelings and thoughts to the audience.
  • What is a monologue?
    Similar to a soliloquy, but there are people who hear what the person says. 
  • What is an aside?
    A method in which a character expresses his thoughts in a few words or a short passage that the other characters can't hear.
  • What is verbal irony?
    Type of irony in which there is a contrast between what a character literally says and what he means
  • What is situational irony?
    Type of irony which occurs when an event or situation turns out to be the reverse of what is expected or appropriate
  • What is dramatic irony?
    Type of irony which occurs when the audience knows something that one or more of the characters on stage do not know.
  • What is fiction?
    A term that refers to any narrative in prose or verse that is entirely or partly the work of the imagination.
  • What is the setting?
    The term we use to refer to the general locale and the historical time in which a story occurs.
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stupid
showing a lack of thought or good judgement
shrewd
clever at understanding and making judgements about a situation
scholarly
spending a lot of time studying and having a lot of knowledge about an academic subject
sage
a very wise person
reasonable
fair, practical and sensible
rational
1 based on reasons rather than emotions
2 able to think clearly
puerile
silly, suitable for a child rather than an adult
prudent
sensible and careful when you make judgements and decisions; avoiding unnecessary risks
precocious
having developed particular abilities and ways of behaving at a much younger age than usual
obtuse
slow or unwilling to understand something