+380.000 other summaries
A unique study tool
A rehearsal system for this summary
Studycoaching with videos
Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven.
Summary - Class notes - Infections and disorders
1562018400 vragen bij colleges
antibody respons: what is primary respons? and secondary respons?primary:
- first infection
- takes more days to reach the peak of antibodies
- repeat infection
- IgG mainly, bit of IgM
- higher than primary
what are memory cells part of: adaptive or innate immunity ?adaptive, because:
- b/t lymphocytes
- effector b cells
- nk cells,
- epithelial barrier
- dendritic cells
what are Koch's postulates? 4
- The microorganism must be found in all organisms suffering from the disease, but not in healthy organisms.
- The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
- The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
- The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
what is a 'fasciola hepatica' and where does it belong to?suckling worm, belong to trematoda, platyleliminthes, digenes
what is symbiosis/parasitism/commensalism/mutualism?Symbiosis
-is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species (need each other)
-is a relationship in which one member of the association benefits while the other is harmed.
-describes a relationship between two living
organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped.
-both benefit, but are not dependent on each other
what are the phylum of roundworm/flatworms/thornyheaded worms (helmints and ectoparasites) ?helmints: nemathelminthes - platyhelminthes - acanthocephala
ectoparasistes: arthropoda (8 vs 6 poten)
what are 5 different classes of parasites?-nematoda (nemathelminthes)
-acarina (arthropoda, 8 legs)
-insecta (arthropoda, 6 legs)
1562191200 examen vragen
There are two types of antibody responses; primary and secondary. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. The amount of antibodies produced in the secondary respondse is higher than the amount produced in the mrimary response.
B. In the primary response it takes more days to reach the peak of antibodies.
C. The secondary response occurs as a result of primary contact with an antigen
D. In the secondary reaction, mainly igG is producted and a bitof IgM
side note: allergy is 2nd immune response right?C. The secondary response occurs as a result of primary contact with an antigen
Memory cells are part of...A. Innate immunityB: adaptive immunity C. Both innate and adaptiveD. None of the aboveB: adaptive immunity
Pick the correct answer about Koch’s PostulatesA. Microorganism should be found only in the organism suffering desease - microorganism should be able to grow in vivo - microorganism may cause desease when introducted into healthy hostB. Microorganism should be found in healthy organisms as well as in deseased organisms - microorganism should be able to grow in vivo - microorganism should cause desease when introducted into healthy hostC. Microorganism should be found only in the organism suffering desease - microorganism should be able to grow in pure culture - microorganism may cause desease when introducted into healthy hostD. Microorganism should be found only in the organism suffering desease - microorganism should be able to grow in pure culture - microorganism should cause desease when introducted into healthy hostMicroorganism should be found only in the organism suffering desease - microorganism should be able to grow in pure culture - microorganism should cause desease when introducted into healthy host
2 statements are made:
1. bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics using cell lysis, called transduction
2. during transformation, bacteria can take up free DNA-fragments in order to become resistant to antibiotics
a. both statements are wrong
b. statement 1 is correct and 2 is wrong
c. statement 2 is wrong and 2 is correct
d. both are correctstatement 1 is wrong and statement 2 is correct
which of the following is not a factor that influences antibiotic functionality?
b. nutrients in the body
d. kinetics of the drug in the bodynutrients in the body
What about viruses is NOT true?A. It needs a hostB. all viruses affect youC. Some viruses can affect the behaviour of the host to improve transmissionD. It is an obligate, intracellular parasiteall viruses affect you
Which of the following sentences is NOT related to smallpox:A. 30 % fatality rateB. variolationC. arbovirusD. Lady Mary Montagu / vaccinia or cow poxarbovirus
Fasciola hepatica is a sucking worm which can infect humans resulting in serious inflammation and blockage of bile ducts or the galbladder. This sucking worm requires an intermediate host to complete its development.
To which class does fasciola hepatica belong (1), to which phylum (2) and how would you describe its lifecycle.A. 1. nematoda, 2. platyhelminthes, 3. DigenesB. 1. Trematoda, 2. Platyhelminthes, 3. DigenesC. 1. Nematoda, 2. Nemathelminths, 3. MonogeneaD. 1. Trematoda, 2. Nemathelminths, 3. Monogenea1. Trematoda, 2. Platyhelminthes, 3. Digenes
Based on these three statements, to which phylum would a parasite belong which has:
I. Sexual reproduction in the intermediate host.II. An indirect life cycleIII. Host specificity on the intermediate host
A. NematodesB. CestodesC. TrematodesD. None of the aboveNone of the above
A person consumes Tania saginata eggs, what symptoms would you expect?
A. this person will experience weight loss because of the tapeworms that will develop from the eggsB. This person will develop neurocystercosis which could possibly lead to epilepsyC. this person will most likely not develop any real symptoms because Taenia saginata has a high host specificity for their intermediate hostD. This person will get problems with their digestionthis person will most likely not develop any real symptoms because Taenia saginata has a high host specificity for their intermediate host
what is true for airborne transmission?
A - mortality of the pathogen does influence the infection probabilityB - there is an equal probability of infection throughout the excretion periodC - The size receive varies per attemptthere is an equal probability of infection throughout the excretion period
Which statement(s) is/are true?
I . it is not possible to completely avoid transmission because there will be pathogens on everything you touch or it will be transmitted through the air.II. it's possible to avoid transmission with good hygiene and a large distance between individuals both are correct.both are correct
What is the definition of dust?A) Particles in the air which are totally or partly from biological originB) Solid particles formed by mechanical fractions of a parental materialC) Fine solid or liquid particles in a gaseous mediumD) Small particles directly emmitted to the airSolid particles formed by mechanical fractions of a parental material
Particulate Matter (PM) is fine solid or liquid particles suspended in a gaseous medium and can also be called bio-aerosol.True or false?False
(can be called aerosols, but not bio-aerosols, since that is more specific for particles that originate (partly, >80%) from organic substances. )Side note: make difference in size of particles --> smaller particle are more dangerous , deeper in lungs
What is the role of cytokines in the immune system?A) They work as antidepressant.B) They establish communication between immune cells and orchestrate a coordinated immune defence.C) They make sure enough tryptophan is produces, so that the amount of serotonin in the blood is being kept stable.D) Cytokines make sure that there are enough white blood cells, and the activity of interleukins is stable.They establish communication between immune cells and orchestrate a coordinated immune defence.
How does a little bit of stress boost your immune system?A) By directing your immune cells to the proper places and by regulating the interleukins.B) Stress causes a higher production of white blood cells which increases your immunity.C) By regulating serotonin production, stress causes you to feel happier so you have a higher immunity.D) Stress causes a higher interleukin production and it downregulates interleukin receptors.By directing your immune cells to the proper places and by regulating the interleukins.
In fatty acids there are several families known: n-6, n-9 and n-3. It is said that n-6 and n-3 influence the immune system. Pick the right answer.
A. n-6 is pro inflammatory, n-3 is anti-inflammatoryB. n-6 is anti-inflammatory, n-3 is pro inflammatoryC. There is no link with the immune systemD. Both are anti-inflammatory and pro inflammatoryn-6 is pro inflammatory, n-3 is anti-inflammatory
Fatty acids are essential if the body cannot synthesise it by itself, the non-essential fatty acids can be synthesised by the body or made out of essential fatty acids. Uptill which Carbon atom (counted from the methylgroup) can we synthesise ourselves?
A. 9B. 7C. 6D. 37
Which of the following things characterize immunity in Ferm free animals?
A. Few centres where B cells can matureB. Overdevelopment centres where B cells matureC. increased number of protective IgA producing cellsD. All of the aboveFew centres where B cells can mature
When there is an absence of TLR's (Toll-like receptors) in macrophages, the survival and replication of Salmonella will:
A. Increase, because due to the stable pH that is ensured in this way, the virulence genes (SP-2) are not expressed and therefore Salmonella can't be detectedB. Increse, because due to the drop in pH that is ensured in this way, the virulence genes (SP-2) are not expressed and therefore Salmonella can't be detectedC. Decrease, because due to the stable pH that is ensured in this way, the virulence genes (SP-2) are not expressed and therefore Salmonella can be detectedD. Decrease, because due to the drop in pH that is ensured in this way, the virulence genes (SP-2) are not expressed and therefore Salmonella can be detectedDecrease, because due to the stable pH that is ensured in this way, the virulence genes (SP-2) are not expressed and therefore Salmonella can be detected
What is the main reason for involuntary culling?
A. MastitisB. Reproductive disordersC. Locomotion problemsD. SicknessReproductive disorders
Which of the following options is increasing when the cow has a non-recovering uterus?
A. HaptoglubulinB. AlbuminC. ParaxonaseD. CholesterolHaptoglubulin
What is the difference between metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2?Metabolic syndrome is an early stage of diabetes type 2 of which the blood sugar levels are not that high yet
Which answer(s) are correct? (More than one can be correct)
The similarities between pigs and men are:
A. They both have a comparable sizeB. The brains of pigs are more developed than those of menC. Pigs share characteristics with humans at the level of general physiologyD.They are omnivores with a similar digestive tract and show a propensity to obesity- They both have a comparable size
- Pigs share characteristics with humans at the level of general physiology
- They are omnivores with a similar digestive tract and show a propensity to obesity
In which bacterial life stage are toxins predominately produced?
A. exponential phaseB. lag phaseC. stationary phaseD. dying off phasestationary phase
What is the most important part fraction of endotwins to perfom its function?
A. cell wallB. core polysaccharideC. Lipid AD. o-antigenLipid A
In streptocussus pyogenes, what happens to the white bloodcells?
A. migrate out of blood vessels to pathogensB. do not migrateC. they commit suicideD. the blood vessel will burstdo not migrate
Which of the following is an enviromental causatie agent of mastitis?
A. S. dysgalactiaeB. S. uberisC. S. agalactiaeD. S. aureusS. uberis
In an in vitro adhesion study it was found that there are two morphological different udder cell types: cubic epithelial cells and elongated epithelial cells.
Which of these statements of these cell types is NOT true:
A. cubic epithelial cells are actin positiveB. elongated epithelial cells are actin negativeC. cubic epithelial cells produce smooth muscle actionD. elongated epithelial cells have no microvillielongated epithelial cells have no microvilli
Choose the right answer.
A. Gram positive bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and colours purple.B. Gram positive bacteria have a complex peptidoglycan structure and colours purple.C. Gram negative bacteria have a complex peptidoglycan structure and colours red.D. Gram negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan structure and colours purple.Gram positive bacteria have a complex peptidoglycan structure and colours purple.
An immunodeficient patient is infected with a bacterium, which type of antibiotics would you inject to the patient?1. Bacteriocidal antibiotics2. Bacteriostatic antibioticsA. Antibiotic 1B. Antibiotic 2C. You can give either oneD. Both will pose a problem within the patientAntibiotic 1
1. The PM 10 emission in the Netherlands has decreased over the past 20 years2. The PM10 emission in the Netherlands of agriculture has decreased over the past 20 years.
A. 1 is true, 2 is falseB. 1 is false, 2 is trueC. Both trueD. Both false1 is true, 2 is false
Which of the following answers is the most appropriate reason bio-aerosols are not a good vector for certain pathogens?
A. Bacteria are too large for the dust particles.B. Many pathogens are vulnerable to drying out and require more moisture than is available in dust particles.C. Dust particles with incorporated pathogens settle too quickly to infect animals.D. Bio-aerosol particles lack the nutrients required for pathogens to survive.Many pathogens are vulnerable to drying out and require more moisture than is available in dust particles.
What can occur in the cow when it suffers from selenium deficiency?
A) Mastitis, retained placenta, ketosis, white line diseaseB) White line disease, salmonella, metritis, high somatic cell countC) Mastitis, metritis, retained placenta, high somatic cell countMastitis, metritis, retained placenta, high somatic cell count
How can laminitis be induced?A) Giving a very sugar rich dietB) Giving a starch rich dietC) Giving a fibre rich dietGiving a very sugar rich diet
Which of the above figures shows herd immunity and what percentage of people at most need to be vaccinated for it to be effective?
A. Left. 75-80%B. Right. 85-90%C. left. 85-90%D. right. 75-80%Right. 85-90%
Which statement is true?A. a virus is aliveB. a virus is an organismC. a virus is not a cellD. All of the abovea virus is not a cell
Which bacteria is expected to infect the quickest based on the mortality rate?
A) Bacteria 1 with mortality rate: 5.75 day-1B) Bacteria 2 with mortality rate: 2.35 day-1C) Bacteria 3 with mortality rate: 2.34 day-1D) Bacteria 4 with mortality rate: 4.67 day-1Bacteria 3 with mortality rate: 2.34 day-1
Cleaning the environment reduces:A) Direct transmissionB) Indirect transmissonC) DiffusionD) Infection rateIndirect transmisson
Which of these factors are necessary for colonization of S. aureus?A. FlagellaB. PilliC. AdhesinsD. None of the aboveNone of the above
What is the difference between cestodes and tremetodes?
A. Cestodes have an indirect life cycle, trematodes a direct.B. Trematodes have an indirect life cycle, cestodes a direct.C. Trematodes can have more than 2 hosts, cestodes always have 2.D. In trematodes, sexual reproduction takes place in the intermediate host, whereas sexual reproduction of cestodes takes place in the Final host.Trematodes can have more than 2 hosts, cestodes always have 2.
Why decrease LPS the mothering skills at high T, but do not at low temperature?A. Because at low T, the blood flow is decreased and therefore LPS does not have any effect.B. Because at low T, mothering skills are more important than at high TC. No clear evidence was found for this statement.Because at low T, mothering skills are more important than at high T
What is NOT a possible effect of an increase in cytokine levels?A. DeathB. OedemiaC. DepressionD. FeverOedemia
Read the full summary
This summary. +380.000 other summaries. A unique study tool. A rehearsal system for this summary. Studycoaching with videos.