Summary Class notes - Introduction to Linguistics

Course
- Introduction to Linguistics
- Bobby Ruigoord
- 2020 - 2021
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Cognition, Language and Communication
374 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Introduction to Linguistics

  • 1577833200 Chapter 1

  • How do you decide whether a sentence is good?
    By using the (1) memory, (2) knowledge of the language
  • When do you know a language?
    If you can understand and produce
  • Composititionality of language
    A word on its own has a particular meaning but it is at the same time composed of combinations of sound that help distinguish meaning
  • Recursion
    A linguistic unit of a certain type contains another linguistic unit of that same type

    For example: 
    Sheila assumes [that Peter knows [that Ahmed thinks [that he is a liar]]].
  • How are human languages acquired?
    Through interaction with the environment


    One generation to the next
  • Aspects of human language
    (1) Creative: with the rules at their disposal, humans can always make new sentences

    (2) Completely independent of the here and now

    (3) Spontaneous: there doesn't have to be a direct prompt or stimulus
  • Constructed languages
    Languages that have been consciously and deliberately designed by humans
  • What is the difference between constructed and natural languages?
    Constructed languages don't change over time and or not acquired by children from birth
  • Where come written forms of languages from?
    They are based on their spoken form

    Secondary form of language
  • Descriptive grammar
    Describing the rules for all varieties of the language
  • Prescriptive grammer
    Prescribes which forms of a language are good and which are not


    Does not describe
  • Diachronic description
    Describing a language from the perspective of change

    Also known as historical grammar
  • Synchronic description
    A representation of a language at a particular moment in time
  • Pedagogical grammar
    The rules of a language for the purpose of teaching and learning
  • What are the two different approaches of studying language?
    (1) Thematic approach: exploring language from a certain theme

    (2) Second approach: start from the language itself and study its different parts or levels
  • Phonetics and phonology
    Sounds
  • Morphology
    Word structure
  • Syntax
    Sentence structure
  • Universals
    Properties shared by all languages
  • Onomatopoeia
    Word describing a sound

    = not arbitrary
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Accusative case
Indicate the patient
Damage to Broca's are
Damage to this part of the brain will mostly affect speaking, whereas comprehension remains relatively intact.

Patients will speak slowly and with difficulty

They use no or almost no words with a grammatical function, such as articles or prepositions

Telegraphic speech
Damage to Wernicke's area
Problems in language comprehension

Language production is normal in speed and sentence length

When they speak, they may exchange words with similar meanings

For example: saying boy instead of girl

Meaningless jargon
Aphasia
Language dysfunctions that are caused by damage to the brain
Multilingualism
People that speak more than two languages
Bilingualism
People that speak two languages
Covert prestige
Group of non-standard varieties can distinguish themselves, group identity
Sorts of variation
  • Phonological: pronunciation
  • Morphological: word formation
  • Syntactic: sentence structure
  • Lexical: different words refer to the same object, stylistic
  • Semantics: same word refers to different concept
  • Pragmatic: appropriateness in situation
Language variants
All native speakers of any language know they don't speak the same variant of a language as other people

Construct linguistic variable
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Postulates strongly determining influence of language on thought