Summary Class notes - Introduction to Linguistics

Course
- Introduction to Linguistics
- Bobby Ruigoord
- 2020 - 2021
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Cognition, Language and Communication
374 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Introduction to Linguistics

  • 1577833200 Chapter 1

  • How do you decide whether a sentence is good?
    By using the (1) memory, (2) knowledge of the language
  • When do you know a language?
    If you can understand and produce
  • Composititionality of language
    A word on its own has a particular meaning but it is at the same time composed of combinations of sound that help distinguish meaning
  • Recursion
    A linguistic unit of a certain type contains another linguistic unit of that same type

    For example: 
    Sheila assumes [that Peter knows [that Ahmed thinks [that he is a liar]]].
  • How are human languages acquired?
    Through interaction with the environment


    One generation to the next
  • Aspects of human language
    (1) Creative: with the rules at their disposal, humans can always make new sentences

    (2) Completely independent of the here and now

    (3) Spontaneous: there doesn't have to be a direct prompt or stimulus
  • Constructed languages
    Languages that have been consciously and deliberately designed by humans
  • What is the difference between constructed and natural languages?
    Constructed languages don't change over time and or not acquired by children from birth
  • Where come written forms of languages from?
    They are based on their spoken form

    Secondary form of language
  • Descriptive grammar
    Describing the rules for all varieties of the language
  • Prescriptive grammer
    Prescribes which forms of a language are good and which are not


    Does not describe
  • Diachronic description
    Describing a language from the perspective of change

    Also known as historical grammar
  • Synchronic description
    A representation of a language at a particular moment in time
  • Pedagogical grammar
    The rules of a language for the purpose of teaching and learning
  • What are the two different approaches of studying language?
    (1) Thematic approach: exploring language from a certain theme

    (2) Second approach: start from the language itself and study its different parts or levels
  • Phonetics and phonology
    Sounds
  • Morphology
    Word structure
  • Syntax
    Sentence structure
  • Universals
    Properties shared by all languages
  • Onomatopoeia
    Word describing a sound

    = not arbitrary
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