Summary Class notes - ISS

- -
- 2019 - 2020
- Tilburg University (Tilburg University, Tilburg)
- Information Management
123 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - ISS

  • 1575154800 Lesson 1

  • Chief Information Officer
    Head of Information Technology; the highest IT executive or manager in a firm or business unit.
  • CIO's main role
    Aligning business and IT
  • Main responsibilities CIO
    • Intellectual alignment (aligning business strategy and IT strategy).
    • IT alignment (aligning IT infrastructure with IT strategy).
    • Operational alignment (aligning IT infrastructure with business infrastructure). 
  • Intellectual alignment (Business-IT strategy alignment)
    The degree business strategy supports / and is supported, by the IT strategy.
  • IT alignment (IT strategy - IT infrastructure & process alignment)
    The degree to which the higher level, externally focused IT strategies are aligned with the lower level, internally focused IT infrastructure and processes.
  • Operational alignment (Organizational infrastructure & processes - IT infrastructure & processes alignment)
    The lower level, internally focused operational level of alignment deals with how the business infrastructure and processes align with the IT infrastructure and processes.
  • Porter argues that there are two generic strategies
    • Differentiation
    • Cost leadership 
  • Differentiation
    • Offer: products and services with unique features.
    • Achieved by: superior designs, innovative research and development, superior engineering, customer intimacy, superior customer service, and brand image.
    • Examples: Cadillac (high-end prices)
  • Cost leadership
    • Offer: lowest average unit costs in the industry.
    • Achieved by: cost minimization, operational excellence, operating the same activities and achieving the same outcomes more efficiently than rivals.
    • Examples: Chevrolet (low price cars)
  • Miles and snow argues that there are three generic strategies.
    • Defender
    • Prospector
    • Analyzer
  • Defender
    • Change: eschew changes (most stable of the three)
    • Product type: high-quality but standard products or services at low prices.
    • Emphasising: operational efficiency and economies of scale.
  • Prospector
    • Change: create changes in its market
    • Product type: new product/market
    • Emphasising: innovativeness and flexibility
  • Analyzer
    • Change: follows changes (the prospector) very quickly
    • Product type: a stable domain of core products but very quickly introducing competitive, and occasionally better products after prospector
    • Emphasising: combination of the two dual technological core, with stable and flexible components.
  • IS Strategy types
    • IS for efficiency
    • IS for flexibility
    • IS for comprehensiveness
  • IS for efficiency
    • Focus: internal and inter-organizational efficiencies and long-term decision making.
    • Example, IS helps: tight cost management, close supervision of labor, automated processes, remote working.
  • IS for flexibility
    • Focus: market flexibility and quick strategic decisions.
    • Example IS helps: monitor product sales, monitor trends of product/market, better collaboration among marketing, R&D, and engineering departments for developing new products, etc. 
  • IS for comprehensiveness
    • Focus: making comprehensive decisions and quick responses through using knowledge of other organizations. 
    • Example, IS helps: having a comprehensive view of customer, supply chain, market players (all customer data in one view).
  • Functionality misfit
    Functionality misfits occurs when the way processes are executed using the enterprise system leads to reduced efficiency or effectiveness as compared to pre-enterprise system outcomes.
  • Data misfit
    Data misfits occur when data or data characteristics stored in or needed by the enterprise system leads to data quality issues such as inaccuracy, inconsistent representations, inaccessibility, lack of timeliness, or inappropriateness for users' contexts.
  • Usability misfit
    Usability misfits occur when the interactions with the enterprise system required for task execution are cumbersome or confusing, i.e., requiring extra steps that add no value, or introduce difficulty in entering or extracting information.
  • Role misfit
    Role misfits occur when the roles in the enterprise system are inconsistent with the skills available, create imbalances in the workload leading to bottlenecks and idle time, or generate mismatches between responsibility and authority.
  • Control misfit
    Control misfits occur when the controls embedded in the enterprise system provide too much control, inhibiting productivity, or too little control, leading to the inability to assess or monitor performance appropriately.
  • Organizational culture misfit
    Organizational culture misfits occur when the enterprise system requires ways of operating that contravene organizational norms.
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