Summary Class notes - Land & Forage management

Course
- Land & Forage management
- Bakker
- 2019 - 2020
- VHL University of Applied Sciences (VHL University of Applied Sciences locatie Velp, Velp)
- Dier- en Veehouderij
356 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Land & Forage management

  • 1592258400 Land management introduction

  • Which 7 factors define a landschape?
    - tectonic movements/vulcanism/parent material
    - distance to sea/equator/water in general (climate,sea,river)
    - climate
    - land and soil type
    - relief, topography
    - plant succession
    - human impact
  • What is the WRB?
    World Reference Base
  • Which systems are the Dutch and FAO systems?
    World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB)
    Unified soil classification System (USCS)
    USDA (National)
  • What is the purpose of the different systems?
    - Summary of information
    - comparison and communication about soils
    - evaluation of soils ; land suitability
        - for agriculture
        - for specific cropping systems
        - for construction
  • What are 5 characteristics of the agricultural soils in NL?
    - Large variety of soil types
    - animal husbandry across the country
    -  forage necessary for horses and ruminants
    - cultivation for economic reasons
    - increased focus on sustainable production
  • What are the 4 features from a Dune?
    - protects against the sea
    - provides drinking water
    - recreation
    - nature area
  • What are the 4 features form a Hilly?
    - located in province zuid Limburg
    - geology: plateau
    - Highest point above sea level
    - chalky (mergel) rock deposits, formerly used as fertilizer (CaCO3)
  • What are the 5 features of the river or delta area?
    - Delta of Maas aan de Rijn rivers
    - Netherlands: sink of europe?
    - Riverside: Rivermade, of clay and sand
    - Meadows in lower parts
    - fruit trees ( region 'betuwe')
  • What are two features of peat?
    - Higher areas -> Hoogveen in north. Lower areas -> Laagveen in west
    - Used for grassland. North also for potatoes and used for flower bulbs on former peat soils (veenkoloniale gronden)
  • Name the three features of sand
    North: Flat, relative high in soil organic matter (SOM); sand from the icetides
    East: Mosaic landscape, slightly hilly; moderate SOM%; sand from German rivers
    South: hilly (from Dutch perspective) low in SOM and sand from rivers
  • Formulate 4 features of clay
    - Flat and open landscape
    - near seashore: salt - loving plants
    - rich soils
    - in the north: man made hills, mounds (terpen), algae (Wieren)
  • Where does LU stand for?
    Livestock units
  • A good soil for crop growth (gewas) delivers:
    - plant nutrients
    - moisture
    - soil structure
    - soil and crop health
  • With which two ways can the soil be analysed if it is a good soil?
    1. Visual: aggregates and earth worms
    2. In laboratory: Contents of e.g. N,P,OM,Clay and PH value and others
  • When will you do a visual soil assessment at a cropped soil
    (gewas bodem bijv. Mais)?
    After harvest and before cultivation
  • When will you do a visual soil assessment at a pastoral soils (bijv gewoon grass).
    One time late winter OR early spring
  • 1592517600 les 4 soil Chemistry

  • What is the definition from soil fertility?
    The capacity of a specific soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality and support human health and habitation
  • How much does a grasland+arable cropping (akkerbouw) costs?
    40-60000 per hectare
  • Is there a relationship between the price and the soil quality/fertility?
    No
  • Is a good soil priceless (onbetaalbaar)?
    Yes
  • Name 6 macro nutrients
    Nitrogen (N)
    Phosphate (P)
    Sulphur (S)
    Potassium (K)
    Magnesium (Mg)
    Calcium (Ca)
  • Name 4 Micro nutrients
    Borim (B)
    Iron (Fe)
    Zinc (Zn)
    Copper (Cu)
  • Wherefor is protein essential?
    For all living organisms, and is required for growth and development
  • Which material is one of the main elements in protein?
    Nitrogen
  • Which material is also a component of nucleic acid, DNA, RNA, genes, chromosomes, enzymes, chlorophyll, secondary metabolites, and amino acids?
    Nitrogen
  • What is the most important nutrient?
    Nitrogen
  • Where for is nitrogen important?
    Essential for plant growth (protein, genetic info etc.)
  • Where does nitrogen come from?
    Organic and inorganic sources.
  • Where does organic matter come from?
    Humus, crop residues, manure, soil organisms
  • Where does inorganic matter come from?
    After decomposition from organic matter and mineral fertilizers
  • In which two ways can Nitrogen been picked up?
    By a mineral form (nitrate or ammonium)
    Or via Passive uptak by water
  • Can the losses from Nitrogen be large?
    Yes, by leaching, denitrification, ammonia volatilisation
  • Wherefore does SOM have multiple functions?
    For soil quality, crop production and environmental quality
  • Are the changes with SOM small or big and steady or not steady?
    Small and steady
  • What is difficult with SOM and what is better to prevent?
    Compensation
  • Do all additions of Organic Matter build up SOM?
    No
  • What happens with <1 year with SOM
    Breakdown, food for soil organisms and N-availability
  • What happens >1 year with SOM?
    Present, effective organic matter, builds up SOM
  • What is most important to the release (mineralisation) of N and S
    Organic Matter
  • When is the release of OM most likely?
    If soil is moist (vochtig) warm and well aerated (goes gelaagd)
  • Where does the OM and mineral release process depend on?
    Properties of soil solution and microbial activities
  • What are the 7functions of catch crops/green manure? (vanggewas en groenbemesters)
    1. Improving evaporation (verdamping) and infilitration (filtratie)
    2. Soil cover
    3. Nitrogen recovery and availability
    4. Activates soil organisms and soil health
    5. inhibits (some) nematodes (wormen)
    6. Weed control
    7. Adds organic matter      
  • Are there changes in SOM?
    No general trend changes in SOM
  • How is SOM managed?
    Via fertilisation, cropping systems and tillage (grond bewerking)
  • About how much year(s) is accounting (bewerking) better? One or several years?
    Several years
  • What are mineral fertilizers for grasslands or maize (nitrogen)
    KAS (kalkammonsalpeter)
    Ureum (less common, converted into ammonium)
  • What are organic fertilizers on grasslands or maize (nitrogen)
    Dairy manure (slurry)
    Farm yard manure (with straw), pig manure
  • Which fields do mostly get more fertilizers? And why?
    High producing fields, so they keep on producing
    low producing fields, so they improve
  • How to cut (bezuinig) on fertilisation?
    Reduce n-rate proportionally (inverhouding) to n-mineralisation
    Apply equal (gelijk) N-rate to all fields, irrespective (ongeacht) of N-mineralisatie
  • What are two similarities between Phosphate (P) and Nitrogen (N)
    1. Made available from OM by soil Organisms
    2. Environmental issues 
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Latest added flashcards

What are three facts from stable organic matter (humus)
  • Hardly broken down
  • maintains soil structure
  • water-holding capacity  

Fungi eat 'slow food'
What are three facts from fresh' ýoung' organic matter?
  • Easily mineralised
  • gives plants nutrients
  • broken down in 1 year  

Bacteria eat fast food
What is vermicomposting?
  • The process by which worms are used to convert organic materials into a humus like material know as vermicompost.
  • Defines worm Eisenia fetida 
What are three facts about the common earthworm?
  • Up to 10 years of age
  • eats surface
  • lives in vertical tubes, several meters deep -> air  
What are three facts about the grey worm?
  • Fast grower
  • may reach quite a few years in age
  • eat vertically -> good for structure  
What are two soil engineers (grond verbouwers)
  • Aporrectodea calliginosa (grey worm)
  • Lumbricus terrestris (common earthworm/pendelaar) 
What is the function of Mycorrhiza (samenleving van schimmels en planten)?
Is able to absorb P that is not available to plant roots
In symbiosis (langdurig samenleven )with plant ( exchange for sugars)
What is a special soil life (bacteria)? And where does it lives?
  • Rhizobium bacteria
  • lives in clover nodules
Why does the temperature depend in the Rhizobium bacteria?
Later start of crop growth in spring as compared to mineral fertiliser
Where does N transfer to?
From N to grass