Summary Class notes - Learning & Memory

Course
- Learning & Memory
- Jaap Murre
- 2019 - 2020
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
215 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Learning & Memory

  • 1575327600 Lecture 1: Intro & Neurobiology

  • Long term memory is devided in? (2)
    - Explicit/Declarative memory
    - Implicit / Nondeclarative memory
  • Explicit memory id divided in? (2)
    - Episodic memory: Events: personal experiences in time/place
    -  Semantic memory: Facts: World/object/language knowlegde & conceptual priming
  • Implicit memory is divided in? (4)
    - Procedural memory: Motor & Cognitive skills
    - Perceptual representation system: Perceptual priming
    - Classical conditioning: Conditioned responses between 2 stimuli
    - Nonassosciative learning: Habituation sensitization
  • What is the method of loci?
    - Giving things you need to remember a place on a path and following that path to remember them
  • Important ancient times philosopher?
    - Aristotle: Assosciations between stimuli
  • What did Charles Darwin show regarding learning?
    Evolutionary importance of responding to the environment
  • What did Hermann Ebbinghaus do?
    Founder of modern memory psychology.
    Studied himself.
    Learning 1228 different lists of 13 meaningless syllables
  • What is the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve? What stands out?
    Curve showing the retention of information.
    9 hours after learned vs 1 day after learned: No difference (because of sleep)

    Ebbinghaus thought he made a mistake but he didnt
  • What is Jost's Law?
    If 2 memory traces have equal retrieval probability but different ages. The older one will:
    - Be forgotten more slowly than the younger one
    - Benefit more from additional learning
  • What did Francis Bartlett show?
    Memory is a construction (Gestalt)
    - Memories are complemented by known information.

    Memorise plate that is only half in the picture --> People memorise entire plate
  • What did William James show? (2)
    - Primary & Secondary memory
    - Tip of the Tongue phenomenon
  • What did Sigmund Freud show? (3)
    - Emphasis on unconscious processes
    - Repression as a mechanism for forgetting (role of emotion)
    - Slip of the tongue phenomenon
  • What did Lasly show in neurobiology?
    More percentage of isocortex destroyed --> More mistakes of mouse in maze
  • What d id O. Hebb show? (2)
    Cells that fire together wire together
    Hebbian learning: Neural networks
  • Who are the 3 behaviorists and what are they known for?
    Pavlov: Classical conditioning
    Watson: Fear conditioning (little albert)
    Skinner: Operant conditioning (Skinner box)
  • What is Miller's Law?
    You can recall up to 7 things
  • Er zijn modellen die je moet leren
    Broadbent's information model
    Atkinson & Shiffrin Model
    Baddeley & Hitch model
  • What did Tulving show?
    Difference in Episodic, Semantic & procedural memory
  • Laatste slide van eerste PP model
    Staat er leuk
  • Spines over time:
    Shrink & grow (seemingly randomly and ALOT) --> New connections can be made
  • Hippocampus encodes:
    - Essential for formation of Episodic memory
    - Specialized in spatial memory

    Spatial memory research:  - John o'Keefe: Place cells --> Active when rat in certain location

    - Moser & Moser: Grid cells --> Fire when rat passes certain locations (hexagonal grid)
  • What is the difference between Place cells & Grid cells?
    - Place cells: active when rat is in certain location
    - Grid cells: Active when rate passes certain locations (hexagonal grid)
  • What does the Morris Water Maze show?
    - Variable starting position: Hippocampus lesions doesn't improve

    - Constant starting position: Hippocampus improves (slower than normal)

    Idea: Hippocampus not specialized in spatial memory --> Hippocampus plays a role in remembering complex assosciations
  • What area is needed for a Delayed non-matching to sample Task?
    Parahippocampal area's: Essential for formation of complex assosciations between objects & their context
  • What do parahippocampal area's encode?
    - Formation of complex assosciations between objects & context 
    -  Episodic memory
  • Where is the feeling of familiarity encoded?
    Perirhinal cortex
  • What area's encode declarative/explicit memory?
    - Medial Temporal lobe 
    - Neo cortex
  • What does the model of hippocampus-cortex interaction during consolidation show?
    - Hippocampus is a link system: Links information that is needed
    - Neocortex is a trace system: Only closeby nodes can be activated
  • Why do we make a distinction between episodic & semantic memory?
    - Semantic dementia vs Alzheimer dementia
    - Different parts are inolved
  • What part of the brain encodes implicit procuderal skills & habits?
    Striatum
  • What parts encode implicit priming?
    Neocortex
  • What part of the brain encodes simple classical conditioning?
    Amygdala
    Cerbellum
  • What parts encode nonassosciative learning?
    Reflex pathways
  • Why do we make a distinction between explicit vs implicit memory?
    - Anterograde amnesia patients have implicit memory but lack explicit memory (Teach them to play piano) they can't remember but can play
    - Different parts of the brain are involved
  • What was Bartlett's insight?
    Prior knowlegde influences memory (Schemata's)
  • What did Tolman show?
    Ratten kunnen naar iets toe zwemmen (Mental map consulting)
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What is the function of the episodic buffer?
Enables: Verbal, spatial  & spatial information to interact
- Binding function
- Connects LTM so chunking processes can reach slave systems
- Role in semantic memory process
What is the lexicality effect?
Better at remembering words than non words. WM is influenced by prior knowledge
What is the phonological similarity effect?
Phonological similar items are more likely to lead to errors.

Performance not as bad when the words in the list rhyme,
worse when they are alliterative(share same beginning sound),
worst when both of these are occuring throughout the list.
What is the irrelevant speech effect?
Phonological loop is less efficient when there is irrelevant speech in the background, even if it is in a language you don't understand. 
You can study better with no music
What is the articulatory suppression effect?
Reduced verbal span when people are speaking while simultaneously trying to remember a set of items
What did Tolman show?
Ratten kunnen naar iets toe zwemmen (Mental map consulting)
What was Bartlett's insight?
Prior knowlegde influences memory (Schemata's)
What is the best way to teach severly amnesic patients?
Errorless learning: Give them the answer --> Give them 95% of the answer --> Give them 90% of the asnwer etc.

Give less & less information to help the patient --> never make an error but they learn
What is dissociative identity disorder? What happens with the memory?
- Multiple-personalities
- Personality A says not to have access to personality B's memories
- Priming shows: More memory overlap than patients admit or realize
What is Functional Retrograde Amnesia (FRA) (Psychogenic Amnesia)?
- Forget old times, not recent times
- Loss of information about self (name)
- Escape from danger or extreme stress
-  Usually memory returns eventually

Often:
- Accompanied by fugue states & wandering behavior
- Prior history of closed-head or brain injuries with amnesia