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Summary  Class notes  Methodology: Operationalization, Design and Analyses

1598911200 Lecture 1: Introduction

What
aim's can research fulfill? What has
occured  why has this
occurred ? How can we explain this? (mediator)  What has caused this? (causal effect)
 What has

When do you use a exploratory research question?To find out what is happening in little understood
situations , develop new questions, understandphenomena (uitvinden wat er gebeurd). Meestal gebruiken we qualitative research questions (Interviews/observations). 
When do you use descriptive research questions?To
portray an accurate profile of persons, events, orsituations. 
When do you use explanatory research questions?To find an explanation of a situation, problem, or pattern, identify
relationships betweenphenomena. (een uitleg vinden. Mechanisme uitvinden) 
What does the moderator doIt affects the direction or the strength of the relation between an independent and dependent variable.

What does the moderator specify?It
specifies under which condition certain effects take place. The when in the research question. 
What does the mediator do?A
mediaor variable represents the mechanism through which the independentvariable affects the dependentvariable. Also it explains the relation between the independe variable and the dependent variable. 
What does the mediator specify?It
specifies how and why an effect exists 
A fixed design is driven onIts theory
driven, there is already a conceptual framework. 
A fixed design focusses on outcomes like
Descriptive questions (What? How much?)
 Explanatory questions (How? Why?)

What is a conceptual frameworkIt illustrates what you expect to find through your research

What kind of questions do you answer with a descriptive questions?What? How much? To what extent? Who?

What kind of questions do you answer with explanatory questions?How? Why? Causality?

Which design focusses on quantitative dataFixed design

A flexible design isTheory development

A flexible design focusses onOn the process; explorative research questions

Which design is based on qualitative dataFlexible design

If you are focused on outcomes, what kind of design do you choose?A fixed design

If a research question is
descriptive and you foced on the outcomes withdesign do you choose?Nonexperimental fixed design 
If you focus on the process, what kind of studies can you do?Exploratory and explanatory.

What kind of experiments are part of fixed designs?
 Real experiments (random assignment)
 quasi experiments (no random assignment)
nonexperimental designs
 Real experiments (random assignment)

What kind of research's are part of flexible designs?
 Case study
 ethnographic research
 grounded theory' research
 Case study

Limitations of experimental designs:
 independent variables can't always be manipulated
 manipulation isn't always ethical
 random assignment doenst always lead to equivalent groups
 sometimes another design is more appropriate for the research question

Hierarchical order to recognizing validity threats:
 Do the statistical conclusions make sense?
 Do the operationalizations actually say something about the abstract underlying psychological concepts?
 is there really a causal relationship?
 Does what I find only apply to Organization Y at Time X?

What kind of question do you ask when you want to assess
statistical validity ?Does the relationship between variablesaccur beceause of more than just coincidence? 
What kind of question do you ask when you want to
assess constructvalidity Can theoperationalizations of theconstructs be interpreted in a different way? Kan je het generaliseren naar het construct dat je wilde meten? 
What kind of question do you ask when you want to assess internal validityCan the observed relaionship be interpreted as a causeeffect relationship?

What kind of quesion do you ask when you want to assess external validity?Can the conclusions of the research be generalized to other populations or people, situations, and times?

Threaths to statistical validity
 Low statistical power
 Fishing
 Unreliable measurement instruments
 Inadequate standardization of the experimental intervention
 Coincidental differences in the experimental situation
 Coincidental differences between the groups
 Low statistical power

What does power mean?The odds that you will observe a treatment effect when it is true.

What does the threat to low
statistical power mean?We usual test forsignificance , however, this only watches for Type 1errors . When the power is to low few hypotheses will be supported. 
What does the threat to Fishing mean?It means that we not specify any hypotheses about relationships in advance, but just looking for significant correlations between variables. In such a matrix, there's always going to be some significant relationship beceause of coincidence.

What is positive about fishing?Indication further research needed

What is negative about fishing?Not statistically valid until research is replicated

What is the solution to the Fishing Problem?Bonferroni method; correcting the significance level for the number of statistical tests.

What does reliability mean?The extent to which a replication of the measure would yield similar results

What are solutions for reliability?
 Longer tests
 Aggregated entities
 Corrections for unreliability
 Longer tests

When is Invalid Standardization of the experimental procedure a threat?When treatment or instructions are not the same for all participants. The result will be inflated error variance and decrease the chance that a true difference will be detected.

What is a solution for invalid standardizaition of the experimental procedure?Try to standardize everything

What is
convergent validity? (construct validity)Differentoperationalizations of the same construct should strongly correlate 
What is
discriminant validity? (construct validity)Operationalizations of differentconstructs should not correlate or only weakly 
Threats to construct validity
 Construct underrepresentation
 Surplus construct irrelevancies
 Monomethod bias
 Demoralized control group
 Fear of evaluation
 Expectations of the researcher
 Hypothesis guessing
 Construct underrepresentation

When does internal validity occurs?It occurs if a study can plausibly demonstrate a causal relationship between the treatment and the outcome

What kind of question do you ask you're self when you want to assess internal validityIs the experimental procedure the cause of the effect of is the effect caused by something els?

Threats to internal validity
 History (events outside the experiment)
Maturation (change of time) Test effects (people become get to know the test)
 Instrumentation ( testen veranderen door het experiment heen)
 Regression to the mean
 Selection (characteristics)
 Mortality/
attrition (mensen die uitvallen tijdens het experiment)  Interactions with
selection (selectie kan zorgen voor verschil in score)
 History (events outside the experiment)

What are threats to external validity about?It's about generalizability of th findings to other people, situations and times

What are general measures to increase external validity1. Random sampling for representativeness
2a . Deliberate sampling for hetrogeneity (broad range of people) we want a high hetrogeneity.2b . Deliberate sampling for maximal differences
3. Generalizing to model instance
4. Replication 
When can threats of exernal validity exist?If they have a specific character

What kind of specific character(of the threats)1. Apply only for the specific group studied
2. Apply only for the specific context of the study
3. Are affected by specific, unique histrorical influences
4. The measured construcs are specific to the group studied
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In multiple regression you check;
You check for the "overlap" between variables. You get an indication of the unique contribution of each predictor to the dependent variable.
With correlations you look at;
At the variance that two variables share, without taking the shared variance with other variables into account
How to estimate the expected the effect size?
 Base this on prior research
 Do a pilot study
 Otherwise be conservative (smallmedium)
SPSS how to: repeated measures
Analyze > general linear model > repeated measures
What does a repeated measures anova allows you?
To test whether there is a difference within the same persons in mental alertness due to the placebo or coffee
What are the 3 regressions you should run with a mediation?
1. IV on DV
2. IV on mediator
3. Mediator on DV
2. IV on mediator
3. Mediator on DV
SPSS how to: ANCOVA
Analyze > general linear model > univariate
Click;
Click;
 options
 descriptive statistics
 estimates of effect size
 homogeneity tests
What type of analysis should you do: If looking at interaction between categorical IV and continuous IV
Hierarchical regression
What type of analysis should you do; If controlling for the continuous IV (only main effect)
ANCOVA
Is the result significant for both male and female?
No! Only for male not for female