Summary Class notes - microbiology

- microbiology
- marcus
- 2017 - 2018
- clayton state university
- nursing
199 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - microbiology

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  • What does skeletal muscle support
    voluntary movement
  • what are the three types of skeletal muscle?
    cardiac, smooth and skeletal
  • describe connective tissue
    connective tissue is throughout the body, anything that doesn't connect things in the body and it has its own blood supply
  • what are the 4 types of connective tissue
    bone, cartilage, fat and blood vessels
  • what kind of muscle tissue is under involuntary control?
    smooth muscle
  • What is the hierarchy structure of the body?
    atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
  • smooth muscle is usually found where
    in walls hollow organs, intestines, blood vessels uterus
  • nervous tissue provides the structure for what?
    the brain, the spinal cord and nerves
  • Nerves are made up of what?
    specialized cells called neurons that send electrical impulses through the body
  • The circulatory system is also called the what, and what does it consist of
    also called the cardiovascular system and it consist of the heart, blood vessels and blood
  • the nervous system controls what when it comes to the circulatory system?
    the blood pressure,heart rate, and distribution of blood to various parts of the body
  • the digestive system consist of what?
    all organs from the mouth to the anus that consist of breaking down and digesting food
  • the digestive system manufactures enzymes that does what?
    break down food so nutrients can be passed easily into the blood for use
  • the most absorption happens where
    in the small intestine that happens through the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
  • what does the liver do in the digestive system?
    delivers bile and breaks down fat
  • what does the pancreas do?
    delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aids in digestion
  • the endocrine system serves to control what?
    body functions
  • what glands are apart of the endocrine system?
    pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, thyroid, thymus and adrenal and they are secreting hormones that travel throughout the blood
  • those endocrine regulate things like what?
    growth and metabolism
  • the nervous system controls what in the endocrine system
    secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland
  • the integumentary system consist of what kinds of things?
    skin mucous membranes, hair and nails
  • What is the function of the integumentary system
    it protects internal tissues from injury water proofs, the body and helps regulate body temperature. and serves as a barrier for pathogens
  • what provides oxygen and nutrients to the skin to allow it to remain healthy?
    the respiratory and digestive system
  • the lymphatic system picks up what from the skin?
    excess fluid from the skin to avoid swelling
  • what adjust the the diameter of blood vessels in the skin?
    the nervous system when it detects certain stimuli.
  • what does the lymphatic system consist of?
    lymph nodes and lymph vessels that carry lymph which is a clear fluid that is rich in antibodies
  • what does the spleen the thymus tonsils do?
    supports the immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes and to the bone
  • what does the lymphatic system  also do all together
    returns fluid that has leaked (interstitial fluid) from the cardiovascular system back into the blood vessles, and absorbs and transport fatty acids and fats from chyle.
  • the urinary system helps with proper lymphatic functioning how?
    by helping to maintain proper water acid base/electrolyte balance of the blood
  • what are cells with a common function and similar form?
  • the reproduction for eukaryotes can occur how ?
    either sexually or asexually which is mitosis or meiosis.
  • prokaryotes reproduce how?
    by binary fission.
  • mitosis is a process in which what happens?
    in which cells divide to produce two daughter cells with the same genomic compliment as the parent cell.
  • mitosis is the mechanism for what 3 things
    growth, development and replacement of tissues
  • what is meiosis the process of?
    specialized form of cell division involved in sexual reproduction that produces female and male gametes.
  • what is one mechanism used by bacteria to move genes between cells by exchanging the circular and extra chromosal DNA with each other
  • eukaryotic cells use what?
    mitosis to divide
  • what is prophase metaphase, anaphase and telephase apart of?
  • the human digestive system consist of the alimentary canal what does the alimentary canal consist of?
    oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum the path that the food follows.
  • what gets the food going in mechanical digestion that is in the smooth muscle walls of the intestine, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine
    perstalisis is that wave like motion that gets the food going
  • the circulatory system is moving what kinds of things?
    oxygen, hormones, and nutrients,
  • what is the atria?
    atria are chambers where blood from veins is collected and pumped into ventricles
  • what are ventricles
    ventricles are larger more muscular chambers that pump blood through the body. or to the body .
  • for arteries blood is going where
    away from the heart by pulmonary arteries
  • for veins blood is going where
    towards the heart into the atria, by pulmonary veins
  • birds and mammals have what type of hearts?
    four chambered hearts with two atria and two ventricles just like us we are mammals
  • the right ventricle does what?
    pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs (away from the heart) to the lungs through the pulmonary artery.
  • so the right side of the heart carries what kind of blood
    deoxygenated blood.
  • while the left side of the heart carries what kind of blood?
    oxygenated blood.
  • the pulmonary veins bring blood where
    to the left atrium which is oxygenated blood
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Summary - Class notes - Microbiology

  • 1547766000 Virulence Factors (MIC 9)

  • There is a dynamic equilibrium between host and microbes. What is the balance called between host and microbe?
  • There is a dynamic equilibrium between host and microbes. What is the off-balance called between host and pathogen?
    Infectious disease.
  • There is a dynamic equilibrium between host and microbes. What is the off-balance called between reduced resistance and microbe?
    Infectious disease.
  • What is infection?
    Colonization and growth of a microorganism in its host. Does not necessarily have to harmful.
  • What is disease?
    Damage to the host that disrupts the normal functioning of the host (or host cells).
  • What is pathogenicity?
    Thepotential (ability) of a micro-organism to cause harm to the host.
  • What is virulence?
    The extent to which a pathogen is able to harm the host.
  • What are virulence factors?
    Virulence factors are molecules expressed and/or excreted by pathogenic microorganisms and enable the pathogen to better infect and colonize a host.
  • Infection takes place in five steps, give these steps.
    1. Adherence
    2. Invasion
    3. Colonization
    4. Tissue damage/disease
    5. Further exposure
  • What are virulence factors of salmonella that are used for adherence?
    • Type I fimbriae
    • Flagellum
  • What is the function of a capsule?
    A capsule may help with attachment to epithelial cells.
  • Where does adherence occur?
    In the skin or mucosa
  • Where does invasion occur?
    Through the epithelium.
  • What are the virulence factors of salmonella that are used for invasion?
    • Injectosomes
    • Virulence plasmid
  • What are injectosomes?
    Injectosomes are proteins that are needed to cross membranes.
  • Invasion can be performed in several ways. What are two possible ways?
    • Zipper mechanism
    • Trigger mechanism
  • What are the virulence factors of salmonella that are used in step 3, colonization and growth?
    • Siderophores
    • Anti-phagocytic proteins induced by oxyR
    • O antigen
    • Vi capsule antigen
  • What is the function of O antigen?
    It inhibits phagocyte killing.
  • What is the function of Vi capsule antigen?
    It inhibits complement binding.
  • What is typical for staphylococcus aureus?
    It produces fibers that will remain around the infection so it cannot spread.
  • What is the advantage of having a capsule?
    Having a capsule prevents phagocytosis by bacteria, so they are harder to 'catch'.
  • What are exotoxins?
    Exotoxins are bacteria-produced and excreted proteins, which cause damage to the host.
  • What are enterotoxins?
    Enterotoxins are exotoxins that specifically affect the small intestine and affect the permeability of the intestinal epithelium. This causes diarrhea which is beneficial for pathogen spreading.
  • What is endotoxin?
    Endotoxin is the integral part of the Gram- negative cell wall. It is the LPS, consisting of:
    • O antigen (antigenic variation)
    • Polysaccharide core (water soluble)
    • LipidA (toxicity) 
  • Expression of toxin genes is under strict control, why is this?
    You don't want to kill the host so you cannot just keep making these toxin genes.
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Latest added flashcards

four stages of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
what is a species?
a group of organisms that is able to successfully interbreed with each other but not with others
what is the physical expressions of genes in a chromosome?
name three air passage ways?
larynx the voice box that is using air to create the voice, pharynx that diverts digested food into the esophagus from the lungs, trachea that carries air through the throat which is protected by cartilage provides air to the lungs WINDWIPE
what kind of circulatory systems does vertebraes have?
closed circulator systems
what is osmosis?
osmosis is the movement of water by diffusion from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration
what does the mitochondria do
it is the bodies power house where ATP is produced, energy food converting energy to ATP.
in plants where do photosynthesis occur?
in chloroplast
 which is an organelle that is only in plants
what is glycolysis
glycolysis breaks down glycogen into pyruvate and ATP can be used in aerobic and anaerobic respiration
what is the krebs cycle?
group of steps where cells generate energy, in the mitochondria turning ADP to ATP.