Summary Class notes - MVOE

Course
- MVOE
- Saskia Griep
- 2015 - 2016
- Hogeschool Tio (Hogeschool Tio Amsterdam, Amsterdam)
- Hotel- en Eventmanagement
259 Flashcards & Notes
3 Students
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Summary - Class notes - MVOE

  • 1441144800 CSR Lesson week 1

  • History of CSR:
    * 360 BC - Plato: Removal of trees erosion
    * 1713 - Von Carlowitz: Sustainability forestry
    * 1840 - Von Liebig: Soil exhaustion
    * 1861 - Tyndall: CO2 greenhouse effect
    * 1896 - Arrhenius: Calculating global warming
    * > 1900 - Henry Ford: Company needs to serve the society
    * > 1900 - Andrew Carnegie: Capitalism + philantrophy
    * 1954 - Peter Drucker: Businesses must have a purpose
    * 1997 - Stuart Hart: Roots of the sustainability crisis are political and social issues that exceed the mandate and capability of any corporation
  • Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept, which ahs become dominant in business reporting. CSR can be seen as the relationship between global corporations, governments and individual citizens. More locally it is concerned with the relationship between a corporation and the local society in which it operates.

    According to the EU commision: CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.
  • Give a brief description of CSR.
    1. CSR can be seen as the relationship between global corporations, governments and individual citizens.
    2. CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns int heir business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.
  • It is apparent of course that any actions, which an organization undertakes will have an effect not just upon itself, but also upon the external environment within the operation operates. This effect of the organization can take many forms:
    - The utilization of natural resources
    - The effects of competition
    - The creation of employment opportunities
    - Transformation of the landscape due to waste
    - The distribution of wealth
    - The climate change
  • Name 6 effects an organization may have upon the external environment.
    1. (The utilization of) Natural resources
    2. (The effects of) Competition
    3. (The creation of) Employment opportunities
    4. (Transformation of the landscape due to) Waste
    5. (The distribution of) Wealth
    6. The climate change
  • There are three basic principles of CSR:
    1. Sustainability: The effect an action taken in the present has upon the options available in the future
    2. Accountability: An organization recognizes that its actions affect the external environment, and therefore assuming responsibility for the effects of its actions.
    3. Transparency: Transparency means that the external impact of the actions of the organization can be ascertained from that organization's reporting and pertinent facts are not disguised within that reporting.
  • History of CSR:
    * 360 BC - Plato: Removal of trees erosion
    * 1713 - Von Carlowitz: Sustainability forestry
    * 1840 - Von Liebig: Soil exhaustion
    * 1861 - Tyndall: CO2 greenhouse effect
    * 1896 - Arrhenius: Calculating global warming
    * > 1900 - Henry Ford: Company needs to serve the society
    * > 1900 - Andrew Carnegie: Capitalism + philantrophy
    * 1954 - Peter Drucker: Businesses must have a purpose
    * 1997 - Stuart Hart: Roots of the sustainability crisis are political and social issues that exceed the mandate and capability of any corporation
  • Name the three basic principles of CSR and their explanation.
    1. Sustainability: The effect an action taken in the present has upon the options available in the future.
    2. Accountability: An organization recognizes that its actions affect the external environment, and therefore assuming responsibility for the effects of its actions.
    3. Transparency: The external impact of the actions of the organization can be ascertained from that organization's reporting and pertinent facts are not disguised within that reporting.
  • Who states that capitalism must be combined with philantrophy?
    Andrew Carnegie
  • Demography:
    Growth of population
    7 billion people in 2011
    9 billion people in 2050
  • 1441749600 CSR Lesson week 2

  • CSR has become more prominent, because:
    - Poor business behaviour towards customers
    - Treating employees unfairly
    - Ignoring the environment and consequences of actions
    - Issue of climate change
    - Concern for the supply chain
  • Give 5 reasons why CSR has become more prominent:
    1. Poor business behaviour towards customers
    2. Treating employees unfairly
    3. Ignoring the environment and consequences of actions
    4. Issue of climate change
    5. Concern for the supply chain
  • There is also a changing emphasis in companies. No longer are they concerned with greenwashing - pretending to be green. Nowadays, companies are taking CSR more seriously, because:
    - It is a key to success
    - It gives companies a strategic advance
    - Employees care about CSR
  • What is greenwashing?
    Pretending to be green
  • Next to the 5 points why CSR has become more important, there is also a changing emphasis in companies. Give three examples why companies are taking CSR more seriously.
    1. It is a key to success
    2. It gives companies a strategic advance
    3. Employees care about CSR
  • The activities of an organization can affect the environment, which are not reflected in the traditional accounting of that organization.
    - Positively affected: Landscaping project
    - Negatively affected: Creating waste
  • The activities of an organization can affect the environment, which are not reflected int he traditional accounting of that organization. Give an example in which the activities affect the environment positively and negatively.
    - Positively: Landscaping project
    - Negatively: Creating waste
  • Externalisation of costs
    - Spatial externalisation = Costs transferred to other enitities in current time -> Causing pollution > Costs for large community
    - Temporal externalisation = Costs transferred into another time period; the future -> Pollution > Must be cleaned up in the future
  • Limits to growth - Club of Rome
    The club of Rome its mission is to act as a global catalyst for change through the identification and analysis of the crucial problems facing humanity and the communication of such problems to the most important public and private decision makers as well as to to general public. 
    5 Critical factors: (Interdependence and interaction)
    1. Population growth
    2. Industrialisation
    3. Food production
    4. Depletion of natural resources
    5. Pollution
    They predicted that the world will face an environmental catastrophe by 2000.
  • What means Eco-development?
    Harmonizing economical and social goals with ecological management for the benefit of future organizations.
  • Name the two types of externalisation of costs, explain them and give an example.
    1. Spatial externalisation = Costs transferred to other entities in current time -> Causing pollution > Costs for large community.
    2. Temporal externalisation = Costs transferred into another time period; the future -> Pollution > Must be cleaned up in the future
  • The Social Contract (1762) by Rousseau explains the relationship between individuals and society, and its government. Rousseau argued that individuals voluntary gave up certain rights in order for the government to manage a better good for all citizens.
    -> Social contract = Contract between corporations and society. A company has obligations towards society in return for its place in society -> License to operate.
  • What is the Social Contract?
    A contract between corporations and society. A company has obligations towards society in return for its place in society (License to operate).
  • In the 70s, companies found organizations as Greenpeace, Unicef and Amnesty International rather troublesome than that one was wiling to take over their positions.
  • Limits to growth - Club of Rome
    1. Population growth
    2. Industrialisation
    3. Food production
    4. Depletion of natural resources
    5. Pollution
    They predicted that the world will face an environmental catastrophe by 2000.

    Model of Meadows
  • Name the 5 critical points from Limits to Growth by the Club of Rome.
    1. Population growth
    2. Industrialisation
    3. Food production
    4. Depletion of natural resources
    5. Pollution
  • Eco-development (Ignacy Sachs - 1977) means harmonizing economical and social goals with ecological management for the benefit of future organizations.
    - Poverty in the South needs to be addressed > Growth
    - Take care of the environment and manage the natural resources in a sustainable way.
  • What does the space-time graph of Meadows look like 
and what does Meadows want to prove with this?

    Horizontal axis represents 'time' and the vertical one represents 'space'. A scatter diagram shows a partition. Meadows wants to show that most people are only
  interested in matters that concern their family or
  friends and only over a short period of time.
  • In what way do people play a role in global warming and CO2 emissions?

    - Greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of 
fossil fuels and biomasses
    - The use of CFCs
    - Emissions by the industry
    - Emissions from transport (cars, airplanes)
  • Why is global warming seen as a problem?
    - Melting of glaciers, rising of sea levels
    - Biodiversity is declining
    - Desertification
  • What was the most important conclusion of the report of the Club of Rome "Limits to Growth" from  1972?
    If the growth trends of the world population, industrialization, pollution, food production and the depletion of natural resources continue, the growth limits of this planet will have been reached within one hundred years.
  • What is meant by the 'green energy'?

    Energy generated or extracted without seriously
 harming the environment.
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What is meant by ‘climate change’?
Long-term change in the average of types of weather over several decades.
What is meant by the term ‘recycling’?
The reuse of raw materials or waste, so that these can replace new materials.
What is the purpose of the global reporting initiative?
To improve the quality, accuracy and utility of reports on sustainability.
What is meant by an 'audit'?
Check if a company acts in the right way
What is meant by the 'green energy'?

Energy generated or extracted without seriously
 harming the environment.
What does the fair trade label indicate?
The label indicates that the products have been made according to certain labour and environmental standards.
Why would an organisation want to have the fair trade label on their products?
Through this label it is indicated that the products are brought on the market in a responsible manner. This can have a positive effect on the image and profitability of an organization.
What is the essence of 'down-cycling'?
In down-cycling products are recycled and the result of this recycling is qualitatively inferior to the material being recycled.
Indicate what the fallacy 'appeal to the facts' means
The inaccuracy lies in the fact that it is suggested
that there are no alternatives to the action taken. 
No moral standards can be derived from facts. 
Facts are in themselves not necessarily morally correct.
Argue why ‘freedom of action’ is a prerequisite to hold someone responsible for 'something' or 'someone'
People, unlike animals, have a free will and intellect. These features give people the possibility to make choices in a variety of situations. 
Unlike animals, humans are not solely tied to their instincts. When an animal is hungry, it will eat as soon as the opportunity presents itself. People on the other hand are able to ignore the sensation of hunger and may chose not to eat.