Summary Class notes - Neuroimaging

Course
- Neuroimaging
- Oostenveld, Norris, & Cameron
- 2016 - 2017
- Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
- Cognitive Neuroscience (research)
230 Flashcards & Notes
23 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Neuroimaging

  • 1473026400 Introduction Herman

  • What is the goal of cognitive neuroscience?
    To map the information-processign structure of the human mind onto the physical organization of the brain.
  • What is the smalest unit of information processing and how many are there?
    The neuron, 100 billion
  • What are the spatial and temporal domains of the brain?
    Spatial:
    Molecular
    Cell/synapse
    Gyri/sulci
    Brain regions
    Lobes
    Hemisphere

    Temporal:
    Action potential (ms)
    Hemodynamics (s to min)
    Lesions
  • What are the spatial and temporal domains of EEG/MEG and fMRI?
    EEG/MEG: brain - lobe - maps in ms to s
    fMRI: brain - lobe - maps - nucleus ~ layer in several s to a day
  • Give 4 paramerers used in ERP statistical analyses.
    Peak amplitude, peak-to-peak amplitude, mean amplitude, onset latency
  • What is most glucose in the cortex used for?
    80-90% of total cortical glucose usage is accounted for by glutaminergic neurons.
  • GLM is estimated for every voxel.
    Significant voxels are overlaid onto structural scan using color coding.
  • 1473631200 Lecture 1 EEG

  • What is recorded with EEG?
    Voltage differences on the scalp.
  • what is the temporal domain of the brain?
    • Action poten1als (ms
    • MEMBRANE POTENTIAL 
    • Hemodynamics (s - min
    • Lesions (/ recovery)    
  • What temporal resolution does EEG have?
    Milliseconds
  • what is the spatial domain of the brain?
    •  Molecular 
    • Cell / synapse 
    • Gyri / sulci 
    • Brain regions 
    • Lobes 
    • Hemispheres       
  • Which EEG system is shown?
    The 10-20 system. Electordes are placed according to anatomical landmarks.
  • what is the temporal resolution of EEG?
    millisecond
  • What is the source of an EEG signal?
    Post-synaptic potential. The sum of all dendritic synaptic activity.
  • where the spontaneous EEG is helpful?
    The spontaneous EEG can be helpful in clinical environments,
    e.g. for diagnosing epilepsy or tumors, detecting abnormal brain states or classifying sleep stages
  • What is event-related potential (ERP) and what is the main advantage of this method?
    It's the avarage EEG of many trials following a stimulus. Due to the averaging, the noise is canceled out.
  • How the electrodes in EEG are placed?
    Electrodes placed according to anatomical landmarks: 10-20 system
  • Which frequency is characteristic for slow-wave-sleep?
    Delta: <4Hz.
  • what does the 10 or 20 system refer to?
     The "10" and "20" refer to the fact that the actual distances between adjacent electrodes are either 10% or 20% of the total front–back or right–left distance of the skull.
  • Name the three most important disadvantages of EEG.
    1. Spatial resolution for source models is low
    2. Selective measure of neural activity
    3. Experiment duration is sometimes long.
  • what is the source of EEG signal?
    • EEG measures postsynaptic potentials 
    • Sum of all dendritic synaptic activity  
  • Where does MEG stand for?
    Magneto Ecnephalo Graphy
  • how is the Event-related potentials (ERPs) analysis?
    Average EEG followingstimulus • Across many trials • Averages out noise 
  • What is measured with MEG?
    The magnetic fields induced by electical currents.
  • pros and cons of EEG
    Pro:High temporal resolution • Relatively cheap, easy to use. • Places minimal requirements on subjects (movement, task requirements). • Can be applied to many diverse subject populations (children, patients). • Multiple experimental sessions are not problematic. • Can be combined with other imaging techniques (recent advances on co-registration of EEG and fMRI). 

    Con:Selective measure of neural activitySpatial resolution for source models is lowExperiment duration is sometimes long 
  • what is difference between EEG and MEG?
    MEG measures magnetic fields induced by electrical currents 
    EEG: The electrical activity of active neurons produces currents spreading through the head. 
  • What can cause artifacts in an ERP?
    Eye blinks
    Eye movements
    Muscle tension in face and neck region (jaw, smiling, swallowing...)
    Reading aloud
    ECG, pulse artifacts
    Loss of electrode contact
  • Which oscillation frequencies (also in Hz) belong to being excited, relaxed and in (deep) sleep?
    Excited: beta (13-30 Hz)/gamma (30-100 Hz)
    Relaxed: alpha (6-12 Hz)
    Slow wave (deep) sleep: delta <4 Hz
  • What is AC?
    Alternatung Current
    Changes fairly rapidly over time
    20/110 Volt power line (50 or 60 Hz)
    For example seen in EEG
  • What is DC?
    Direct Current
    Fairly constant offset in voltage
    E.g. battery, skin potentials
    In discussions of amplifiers, DC can also mean direct coupled (opposed to capacity coupled). THhis means that the amplifier can amplify direct current signals.
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What is the motivation for source modeling?
Want to characterize ERP/ERF in physiological terms. Time or frequency are the "natural" characteristics; location requires interüretation of scalp topography. Forward and inversemodeling helps to disentangle overlapping source timeseries.
What are the strong and weak points of EEG/MEG for source modeling?
Strong:
Temporal resolution
Characterize individual components or ERP
Oscillatory activity
Disentangle dynamics of cortical networks

Weak:
Measurement outside of brain
Overlap of components
Low spatial resolution
What is the forward model?
B(t)=H(r) * qr(t) + n(t) with H(r) the forward model, r a brain region, q the neuonal sourceand most likely n some error/noise.
What is source modeling?
Infer neuronal sources q when knowing the measured field B and the forward model H.
What is DC?
Direct Current
Fairly constant offset in voltage
E.g. battery, skin potentials
In discussions of amplifiers, DC can also mean direct coupled (opposed to capacity coupled). THhis means that the amplifier can amplify direct current signals.
What is AC?
Alternatung Current
Changes fairly rapidly over time
20/110 Volt power line (50 or 60 Hz)
For example seen in EEG
Which oscillation frequencies (also in Hz) belong to being excited, relaxed and in (deep) sleep?
Excited: beta (13-30 Hz)/gamma (30-100 Hz)
Relaxed: alpha (6-12 Hz)
Slow wave (deep) sleep: delta <4 Hz
What can cause artifacts in an ERP?
Eye blinks
Eye movements
Muscle tension in face and neck region (jaw, smiling, swallowing...)
Reading aloud
ECG, pulse artifacts
Loss of electrode contact
What is most glucose in the cortex used for?
80-90% of total cortical glucose usage is accounted for by glutaminergic neurons.
Give 4 paramerers used in ERP statistical analyses.
Peak amplitude, peak-to-peak amplitude, mean amplitude, onset latency