Summary Class notes - Neuroscience

Course
- Neuroscience
- Mr Miyagi
- 2021 - 2022
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
296 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Neuroscience

  • 1615762800 Chapter 1: Past, Present & Future

  • What are the 5 levels of analysis in neuroscience?
    - Molecular
    - Cellular
    - Systems 
    -Behavioral
    -Cognitive
  • Why use rat or mice? Why use monkeys instead of mice?
    Rat/Mice: Easy breeding & DNA altering
    Monkeys: Complex processes
  • 1615849200 Chapter 2: Neurons & Glia

  • What are Glia cells? What functions do they have?
    Supporting cells for neurons: 
    - Insulating
    - Supporting
    -Nourishing
  • What does a Nissl stain distinguish between? What does it actually stain of the neuron?
    Distinguish: Neurons & Glia
    Stains: Nissl Bodies (Nuclei & clumps of material around nuclei)
  • What does a Golgi stain actually stain? What neural parts did this stain show?
    Stains: small % of neurons ENTIRELY dark
    Shown:
    - Soma (central region containing nucleus)
    - Neurites (axons & soma)
    - Because it stains entirely these are visible
  • What is the neuron doctrine?
    Neurons are not connected (synapses)
  • What 3 things are roughly in the Soma of a neuron?
    - Cytosol: Water inside of the soma
    - Different Organelles: Cell nucleus, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    - Ribosomes: Protein synthesis structure in cytoplasm

    Cytoplasm: everything in som except nucleus
  • What does a cell nucleus contain?
    Chromosomes/DNA
  • What is the function of mRNA?
    Carrying genetic (DNA) message to the cytoplasm to start the protein synthesis (expression of DNA)
  • What is transcription when talking about DNA?
    Acids in the nuclei represents the genetic information
    The process of DNA --> mRNA messenger
  • What is an Intron portion of a gene?
    Portion of gene that does not code for amino acids (does not get expressed)
  • What is an Exon portion of a gene?
    Part of a gene that gets expressed in the protein
  • What is RNA splicing?
    Introns (not expressed/does not code amino acids) are removed 

    Exons fused together

    Start of the gene expression (protein formation)
  • What is translation when talking about DNA in Neurons?
    The process of mRNA forming the Amino Acids
  • What is a genome?
    ALL DNAL: Entire length of DNA info in our chromosomes
  • What is the difference between knockout mice & transgenic mice?
    Knockout: Gene deletion
    Transgenic: Breeding
  • What is Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum made out of? What is the function?
    Made out of (non-free) ribosomes
    - Major site of protein synthesis (making proteins)
  • What is the difference between the proteins of free ribosomes & proteins of ribosomes in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?
    Proteins in the rough ER are destined to be inserted into the cell membrane
  • What is the function of the Golgi apparatus inside a cell?
    Sorting of newly made proteins so they can be inserted into the membrane
  • Where is the Smooth Endoplasic Reticulum and what is it's role?
    Inside soma.
    Function: 
    Processing of protein molecules
    Regulating the internal concentration of substances inside the soma
  • What is ATP?
    American Tennis Professionals

    Cell's energy source
  • What is the function of Mitochondria?
    Involved in ATP--> Combines food with oxygen --> Cell fuel
  • Where in the cell is oxygen combined with food?
    Mitochondria
  • What is the function of the neuronal membrane?
    What substances can go in? 
    What substances can go out?
    (of the neuron)
  • What is the big difference between axons and dendrites, besides function?
    No protein synthesis in the axon
  • Are axons in all cells?
    Only in neurons
  • What is the start & end of an Axon?
    Start of the axon: Axon hillock
    End: Synapse/Axon Terminal
  • If an axon is thicker the signal:
    Faster travelling of signal
  • What is the difference between Axon & Axon terminal (contents)?
    Microtubulus: Not in terminal
    Terminal contains synaptic vesicles (for neurotransmitters)
    Axon Terminal --> needs more energy --> More mitchondria
  • Where in the cell are neurotransmitters stored? (axon)
    Synaptic Vesicles
  • What is Axoplasmic transport?
    Ribosomes make protein, not in the axon.
    Axoplasmic transport = transport of these proteins through axon (Anterorgade Axonal Transport)
  • What are Unipolar, Bipolar and Multipolar neurons?
    Unipolar: 1 neurite (which then forms axon & dendrite)
    Bipolar: 1 axon, 1 dendrite
    Multipolar:   1 axon, many dendrites
  • What is the difference: Primary sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons?
    Primary sensory neurons: Neurites in sensory surface of body
    Interneuron: Neurites to other neurons
    Motor neurons: Synapses with muscles
  • What is the difference of Golgi type 1 and type 2 neurons?
    Type 1: Long Axons
    Type 2: Short axons
  • What neurotransmitter do motor neurons for random movements use?
    Acetylcholine (cholinergic)
  • What types of Glia are there?
    - Astrocytes: Remove neurotransmitters
    - Myelinating Glia: Make myelin on axons for speed
    - Microglia: Remove debris
  • What types of Myelinating Glia are here and what is the difference between the 2?
    Schwaan cells: Myelinate PNS
    Oligodendroglia: Myelinate CNS
  • What is the function of Astrocytes?
    Remove neurotransmitters from synaptic cleft (they fill most space in the brain)
  • What is the function of Microglia? What seperates them from other glia?
    Remove debris left by dead/degenerating neurons & glia
    Can pass blood brian barrier
  • What types of microscopes do we use?
    Normal: Light
    Electron: Electron beam
    Laser: Neuron molecules fluoresce at different wavelengths
  • What lab-technique is used to see if a gene gets expressed by mRNA synthesizing proteins?
    Take mRNA from 2 brains --> Put them in a pipetje
    Stain 1 brain green. 1 brain red.
    Poffertjes pan met elk poffertje --> Different gene
    Put both the colored brain shit in
    Genes of expression can be seen based on what color they get
  • What is gene-targetting in mice?
    Inject & Integrate exogenous (from other souce) DNA
    Need viral DNA to inject.
    exogenous DNA can be altered before injection
  • What are neurofibillary tangles? What does it cause?
    - Dead neurons where the neurofilaments are gone

    Consequence: 
    - Tau detaches from microtubulus and there is too much Too in the Soma

    (Alzheimers)
  • What reterograde transport happens from the axon to the soma?
    Reterograde (back):
    - HRP: Horseradish Peroxidase taken up by axon terminals & back to the soma
  • What difference do low-functioning children have in terms of their neurons?
    Dendrites have less spines
    Dendrite spines they have are longer
    (Human fetus has these same dendrites)
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Summary - Class notes - Neuroscience

  • 1588284000 H1 + H2

  • What are the 5 levels of neuroscience analysis?

    - Molecular
    - Cellular
    - Systems
    - Behavioral - how do systems work together to produce behaviors?
    - Cognitive - how does the brain create the mind.
  • Can animals be used for research practises?
    - Only when animal welfare/rights are taken into account.
  • What is the NIssl stain
    A staining method where neurons and glia cells are disntinghuised by purple stains
  • What is the Golgi stain?
    A staining method where the entire neuron is shown. It reveals that the cell body is only a small part --> axons and dendrites.
  • Are neurites of different neurons continous with each other?
    No, Cajal argued that they communicate by contact. Neuron doctrine.
  • What is inside a cell body?

    - Nucleus
    - Genome

    - Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    - Smooth Endoplasmic Recticulum & Golgi Apparatus
    - Mitochondria
  • What is the function of the Rough ER?
    Many ribosoms where mRNA is read into synthesis of proteins are attached to the Rough ER.
  • What is the function of Smooth ER?
    Processing the protein molecules. + regulate internal concentrations of substances such as calcium
  • What is the function of the Mitochondria?
    Regulating ATP income, the cells energy source.
  • What is the Cytoskeleton?
    The microtubules, microfilaments and neurofilaments. They give a neuron its charcteristic shape.
  • Axons and Dendrites, weet je wel toch?
    Ja gap
  • How can neurons be classified based on neurites?

    Unipolar -- 1 neurite
    BIpolar -- 2 neurites
    Multipolar -- multiple neurites
  • What is the difference between Golgi type 1 and Golgi type 2 neurons?

    Type 1 --> long axons (through brain)
    Type 2 --> short axons (do not extend byond vicinity of the cell body)
  • Neurons can be also classified acoording to whether their dendrites have spines.
    Dat je t ff weet.
  • 3 Different types of Glia cells ?

    - Astrocytes
    - Myelinating glia
    - Micro glia

  • What do astrocyte glia cells do?

    Remove neurotransmitters from synaptic cleft.
    They also regulate chemical contents of extraceullular space.
  • What do myelinating glia cells do?
    They provide myelin layers around axons, making it improve in speed of transmitting nerve inpulses.
  • What do Micro glia cells do?
    They remove dead or degrating neurons and glia.
  • What is an electron microscope and how does it work?
    Neurons get visible by a Fluorscence when illuminated by laser light.
  • How can see research the gene expression between two brains?
    Zie plaatje samenvatting met kleuren van mRNA
  • Gene targeting in mice
    Box 2.3
  • What happens in Alzheimer disease with the neuronal cytoskeleton?
    It gets disrupted.
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Latest added flashcards

The brain atlas divides the corpus callosum into 3 major parts. Give the name of most posterior part:
IDKForceps Major Corpus Calossum?

What medicine is used for treating Myasthenia Gravis?
Neostigmine: Restores a bit of receptor function
Cholineesterase inhibitors: Enhance communication nerves & muscles

Immunosuppressants: Lower immunesystem
Corticosterois: Inhibit immunesystem
What is the auto-immune disorder called where muscle action potentials amplitude is less strong?
Myasthenia Gravis
What happens in myasthenia gravis?
Autoimmune disorder: Antibodies against nAch receptor

Muscle action potenials: Lower amplitude
What degenerates in Alzheimers?
Degeneration of the Ach nuclei in the basal forebrain
What are disorders that involve acetylcholine?
- Alzheimers
- Myasthenia Gravis(PNS)
What are the functions of acetylcholine?
LTP & Learning
Enhance selective attention
Generation of neural oscillations
Transmitter at neuromuscular junction
Parasympathetic
What are metabotropic receptors? What is the function & what neurotransmitters are mostly used?
G-protein coupled to 2nd messenger system (no pore)

Function: Slow & Longlasting action

Neurotransmitters: Serotonine & Dopamine
How can we study Ligand-Gated/Ionotropic receptors? What does this method entail?
Patch-Clamp technique (2 methods):

Cell-Attached:
- Pipet attached to cell
- Suck out 1 receptor
- Study it's characteristic

Whole-cell:
- Whole cell on pipet (break)
- All receptors on cell

Add transmitters to the bath in which these receptors lie.
- Add e.g. Acetylcholine --> Binds * opens receptors --> Current can flow through.

- 2 microamp per receptor: More microamp = more receptors
What are ionotropic receptors? What function?
Opens the pore
Function: Fast & short lasting action