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Summary - Class notes - Neuroscience
1615762800 Chapter 1: Past, Present & Future
What are the 5 levels of analysis in neuroscience?- Molecular
Why use rat or mice? Why use monkeys instead of mice?Rat/Mice: Easy breeding & DNA altering
Monkeys: Complex processes
1615849200 Chapter 2: Neurons & Glia
What are Glia cells? What functions do they have?Supporting cells for neurons:
What does a Nissl stain distinguish between? What does it actually stain of the neuron?Distinguish: Neurons & Glia
Stains: Nissl Bodies (Nuclei & clumps of material around nuclei)
What does a Golgi stain actually stain? What neural parts did this stain show?Stains: small % of neurons ENTIRELY dark
- Soma (central region containing nucleus)
- Neurites (axons & soma)
- Because it stains entirely these are visible
What is the neuron doctrine?Neurons are not connected (synapses)
What 3 things are roughly in the Soma of a neuron?- Cytosol: Water inside of the soma
- Different Organelles: Cell nucleus, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Ribosomes: Protein synthesis structure in cytoplasm
Cytoplasm: everything in som except nucleus
What does a cell nucleus contain?Chromosomes/DNA
What is the function of mRNA?Carrying genetic (DNA) message to the cytoplasm to start the protein synthesis (expression of DNA)
What is transcription when talking about DNA?Acids in the nuclei represents the genetic information
The process of DNA --> mRNA messenger
What is an Intron portion of a gene?Portion of gene that does not code for amino acids (does not get expressed)
What is an Exon portion of a gene?Part of a gene that gets expressed in the protein
What is RNA splicing?Introns (not expressed/does not code amino acids) are removed
Exons fused together
Start of the gene expression (protein formation)
What is translation when talking about DNA in Neurons?The process of mRNA forming the Amino Acids
What is a genome?ALL DNAL: Entire length of DNA info in our chromosomes
What is the difference between knockout mice & transgenic mice?Knockout: Gene deletion
What is Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum made out of? What is the function?Made out of (non-free) ribosomes
- Major site of protein synthesis (making proteins)
What is the difference between the proteins of free ribosomes & proteins of ribosomes in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?Proteins in the rough ER are destined to be inserted into the cell membrane
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus inside a cell?Sorting of newly made proteins so they can be inserted into the membrane
Where is the Smooth Endoplasic Reticulum and what is it's role?Inside soma.
Processing of protein molecules
Regulating the internal concentration of substances inside the soma
What is ATP?American Tennis Professionals
Cell's energy source
What is the function of Mitochondria?Involved in ATP--> Combines food with oxygen --> Cell fuel
Where in the cell is oxygen combined with food?Mitochondria
What is the function of the neuronal membrane?What substances can go in?
What substances can go out?
(of the neuron)
What is the big difference between axons and dendrites, besides function?No protein synthesis in the axon
Are axons in all cells?Only in neurons
What is the start & end of an
Axon?Start of the axon: Axon hillock
End: Synapse/Axon Terminal
If an axon is thicker the signal:Faster travelling of signal
What is the difference between Axon & Axon terminal (contents)?Microtubulus: Not in terminal
Terminal contains synaptic vesicles (for neurotransmitters)
Axon Terminal --> needs more energy --> More mitchondria
Where in the cell are neurotransmitters stored? (axon)Synaptic Vesicles
What is Axoplasmic transport?Ribosomes make protein, not in the axon.
Axoplasmictransport = transport of these proteins through axon (Anterorgade Axonal Transport)
What are Unipolar, Bipolar and Multipolar neurons?Unipolar: 1 neurite (which then forms axon & dendrite)
Bipolar: 1 axon, 1 dendrite
Multipolar: 1 axon, many dendrites
What is the difference: Primary sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons?Primary sensory neurons: Neurites in sensory surface of body
Interneuron: Neurites to other neurons
Motor neurons: Synapses with muscles
What is the difference of Golgi type 1 and type 2 neurons?Type 1: Long Axons
Type 2: Short axons
What neurotransmitter do motor neurons for random movements use?Acetylcholine (cholinergic)
What types of Glia are there?- Astrocytes: Remove neurotransmitters
- Myelinating Glia: Make myelin on axons for speed
- Microglia: Remove debris
What types of Myelinating Glia are here and what is the difference between the 2?Schwaan cells: Myelinate PNS
Oligodendroglia: Myelinate CNS
What is the function of Astrocytes?Remove neurotransmitters from synaptic cleft (they fill most space in the brain)
What is the function of Microglia? What seperates them from other glia?Remove debris left by dead/degenerating neurons & glia
Can pass blood brian barrier
What types of microscopes do we use?Normal: Light
Electron: Electron beam
Laser: Neuron molecules fluoresce at different wavelengths
What lab-technique is used to see if a gene gets expressed by mRNA synthesizing proteins?Take mRNA from 2 brains --> Put them in a pipetje
Stain 1 brain green. 1 brain red.
Poffertjes pan met elk poffertje --> Different gene
Put both the colored brain shit in
Genes of expression can be seen based on what color they get
What is gene-targetting in mice?Inject & Integrate exogenous (from other souce) DNA
Need viral DNA to inject.
exogenous DNA can be altered before injection
What are neurofibillary tangles? What does it cause?- Dead neurons where the neurofilaments are gone
- Tau detaches from microtubulus and there is too much Too in the Soma
What reterograde transport happens from the axon to the soma?Reterograde (back):
- HRP: Horseradish Peroxidase taken up by axon terminals & back to the soma
What difference do low-functioning children have in terms of their neurons?Dendrites have less spines
Dendrite spines they have are longer
(Human fetus has these same dendrites)
Summary - Class notes - Neuroscience
1588284000 H1 + H2
What are the 5 levels of neuroscience analysis?
- Behavioral - how do systems work together to produce behaviors?
- Cognitive - how does the brain create the mind.
Can animals be used for research practises?- Only when animal welfare/rights are taken into account.
What is the NIssl stainA staining method where neurons and glia cells are disntinghuised by purple stains
What is the Golgi stain?A staining method where the entire neuron is shown. It reveals that the cell body is only a small part --> axons and dendrites.
Are neurites of different neurons continous with each other?No, Cajal argued that they communicate by contact. Neuron doctrine.
What is inside a cell body?
- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Smooth Endoplasmic Recticulum & Golgi Apparatus
What is the function of the Rough ER?Many ribosoms where mRNA is read into synthesis of proteins are attached to the Rough ER.
What is the function of Smooth ER?Processing the protein molecules. + regulate internal concentrations of substances such as calcium
What is the function of the Mitochondria?Regulating ATP income, the cells energy source.
What is the Cytoskeleton?The microtubules, microfilaments and neurofilaments. They give a neuron its charcteristic shape.
Axons and Dendrites, weet je wel toch?Ja gap
How can neurons be classified based on neurites?
Unipolar -- 1 neurite
BIpolar -- 2 neurites
Multipolar -- multiple neurites
What is the difference between Golgi type 1 and Golgi type 2 neurons?
Type 1 --> long axons (through brain)
Type 2 --> short axons (do not extend byond vicinity of the cell body)
Neurons can be also classified acoording to whether their dendrites have spines.Dat je t ff weet.
3 Different types of Glia cells ?
- Myelinating glia
- Micro glia
What do astrocyte glia cells do?
Remove neurotransmitters from synaptic cleft.
They also regulate chemical contents of extraceullular space.
What do myelinating glia cells do?They provide myelin layers around axons, making it improve in speed of transmitting nerve inpulses.
What do Micro glia cells do?They remove dead or degrating neurons and glia.
What is an electron microscope and how does it work?Neurons get visible by a Fluorscence when illuminated by laser light.
How can see research the gene expression between two brains?Zie plaatje samenvatting met kleuren van mRNA
Gene targeting in miceBox 2.3
What happens in Alzheimer disease with the neuronal cytoskeleton?It gets disrupted.
Latest added flashcards
Cholineesterase inhibitors: Enhance communication nerves & muscles
Immunosuppressants: Lower immunesystem
Corticosterois: Inhibit immunesystem
Muscle action potenials: Lower amplitude
- Myasthenia Gravis(PNS)
Enhance selective attention
Generation of neural oscillations
Transmitter at neuromuscular junction
Function: Slow & Longlasting action
Neurotransmitters: Serotonine & Dopamine
- Pipet attached to cell
- Suck out 1 receptor
- Study it's characteristic
- Whole cell on pipet (break)
- All receptors on cell
Add transmitters to the bath in which these receptors lie.
- Add e.g. Acetylcholine --> Binds * opens receptors --> Current can flow through.
- 2 microamp per receptor: More microamp = more receptors
Function: Fast & short lasting action