Summary Class notes - Neuroscience and Neuroanatomy

Course
- Neuroscience and Neuroanatomy
- Scherper
- 2015 - 2016
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Master Klinische Neuropsychologie
208 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Neuroscience and Neuroanatomy

  • 1441317600 HC 1

  • Welke kant in de hersenen is Dorsal? Ventral? Rostral? Caudal?
    Dorsal is naar boven (superior), Ventral is naar beneden (inferior), Rostral is richting de neus, en Caudal is richting het achterhoofd.
  • Welke kan in het lichaam is Dorsal? Ventral? Rostral? Caudal?
    Dorsal is de rugkant, Ventral is de buikkant, Rostral is richting het hoofd en Caudal is richting de benen
  • Telencephalon = ?
    Forebrain
  • Diencephalon = ?
    Thalamus/Hypothalamus
  • Mesencephalon = ?
    Midbrain
  • Metencephalon = ?
    Pons/Cerebellum
  • Myelencephalon = ?
    Medulla
  • Sulci are?
    Grooves
  • Gyri are?
    Bumbs
  • What can GABA be made of?
    Glutamine
  • Name and count all spinal cord segments
    8 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Sacral, 1 Coccygeal
  • Which part is the border between the frontal and temporal lobe?
    Sylvian/Lateral fissure
  • 1441922400 HC 2

  • Protopathic system concerns?
    Pain, temperature (slow), rough touch
  • Epicritic system concerns?
    Vibration (very fast), movement (fast) and pressure (slow)
  • Which sensory neurons are Epicritic and which are Protopathic?
    A-a and A-b Epicritic, A-d and C Protopathic
  • Which root is for motor nerves?
    Ventral route (descending)
  • Which root is for sensory nerves?
    Dorsal route (ascending)
  • Why does the CNS end at L1?



    The body grows faster then the CNS, first they are the same length but after a year there already is a discrepancy. It’s convenient to tap CFS below the CNS.
  • What is a dermatome?
    part of the skin related to one segment of the spinal cord, its dorsal root and corresponding spinal nerve
  • What is a myotome



    part of muscle related to one segment of the spinal cord, its ventral root and corresponding spinal nerve. In muscles there has been a rearrangement. 
  • Which tract corresponds with protopathic modalities? And where does it cross over?
    Tractus Spinothalamic (anterolateral system), crosses directly over in spinal cord
  • Which tract corresponds with epicritic modalities? And where does it cross over?
    Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal, crosses over at myelencephalon
  • Exteroception is?
    map of outside world, compares visual and auditory systems
  • Interoception is?
    Insular cortex = interoceptive cortex; bodily feelings/awareness, system of thin sensory fibers (pain pathways), homeostatic processes.
  • Function ARAS?
    Waking up the forebrain
  • Function PAG?
    Suppresion/modulation pain
  • Nociceptive Pain
    nociceptor is stimulated by a chemical, event or thermal that could cause tissue damages
  • Neuropathic pain
    disease or trauma damages the CNS itself
  • Central Pain
    Parkinson, MS, Dementia, neuropathic pain due to damage in the brain, brainstem, spinal cord.
  • Neospinealthalamic tract


    1. ascending to primary and secondary somatosensory cortices after passing through the thalamus. Lateral pain system. You don’t worry but you feel the pain. 

  • Paleospinalthalamic tract
    1. To prefrontal cortex after passing through the thalamus. When you really suffer, the medial pain system. 
  • Which fibers do you activate when rubbing your skin after hitting yourself? What happens by doing that?
    You will activate the A-beta fibers which causes to close the gate for the incoming nociceptive stimuli. This Gate Control Theory refers to one of our own pain supression systems at spinal cord level
  • Recall two pain suppresion systems at supraspinallevel
    1. painfull stimuli ascend throug the spionothalamic tract. Before reaching the thalamus, important projections take place (locus coereleus). Pain activates the LC with activation of a descending pathway (dorsolateral funiculus). through this pathway painful stimuli will be inhibited at the level of the dorsal horn. 

    2. pain can activate the prefrontal cotex and by doubg that a descending pathway will be activated which descends throug the PAG (periaquaductal grey) and the DLF, also inhibiting painful stimuli/
  • The two major somatosensory pathways are?
    Posterior column-medial lemniscal (epicritic) and anterolateral system (protopathic)
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2 types of defects in the PMC that look like hydrocephalus
1. Mega Cisterna Magna: no hydrocephalus, treatment necessary, mild/no morphological alteration of hemispheres. 
2. Black Pouch: association with hydro, distortion of nervous structures, compression of subarachnoid spaces, no communication, shunt treatment.
Name 3 medicinal options for MS
1. Interferon Copaxone: decrease in relapses 33%
2. Natalizumab: decrease in relapses 66%
3. Fingolimod: decrease in relapses 55% 
What is necessary for the diagnosis MS?
- Dissimination in place
- Dissimination in time
Name the 3 subtypes of MS
1. Relapsing remitting MS: every item is a relapse that does or does not recover (remission)
2. Secondary progressive MS: decrease in relapses, starts of slow neurological progression. there is a threshold point in which the relapse and recover turns into degeneration
3. Primary progressive MS: no relapsing, only progressive. Males more often affected, prognosis is worse. 
Neurological symptoms MS?
- visual problems: optic neuritis (decreased color vision), double vision
- pyramidal problems: paresis, spasticity, abnormal reflexes
- sensory disturbances: tingeling/painful sensation, numbness
- bladder-/bowel-/sexual problems
- coordination problems: ataxia, tremor
- cognitive disturbances: memory, concentration, attention
- fatique
What is MS?
Disease of the CNS, inflammation, demyelination, demyelination possible, gliosis (scaring), known for lesions at different places in the brain and spinal cord.
When is a Wada test preformed?
Temporal lobe epilepsy --> language lateralization, memory deficits.
What does it mean if a neuron is multimodal?
they respond to pictures sounds and text representations of the same person or object (not in parahippocampal)
What area in the brain responses strongly to pictures of animals?
right amygdala
Why is ICES performed in epileptic patient, what is it?
electrical pulses of alternating polarity are applied at 40HZ for 10 s every time,used to identify ictal onset zone.