Summary Class notes - Nutritional Neurosciences

- Nutritional Neurosciences
- Paul Smeets
- 2020 - 2021
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
393 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Nutritional Neurosciences

  • 1609714800 L1+L2

  • Where is the human nervous system build off?
    • Central nervous system 
    • Brain 
    • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system 
    • Peripheral nerve
  • Name the 8 blood vessels in the brain
    • Common carotid
    • External carotid
    • Internal carotid
    • Vertebral 
    • Basilar
    • Posterior cerebral 
    • Middel cerebral 
    • Anterior cerebral 
  • Besides the 8 blood vessels in the brain you also have the circle of Willis, what is this?
    It is a kind of roundabout. All the blood goes via this...? If there is a blockade somewhere the circle of willis can still provide blood to go to the region. 

    green part in the picture ...?
  • Blood brings 3 things to the brain:
    • Glucose
    • Oxygen
    • Hormones / signalling molecules

  • The brain exists of three things
    • Forebrain 
    • Brainstem 
    • Cerebellum 
  • The brainstem consists of:
    • Midbrain 
    • Pons
    • Medulla 
  • What are the brain stem functions?
    • Reward processing 
    • Processing gut signals 
    • Control of heart and breathing rate 

    (Motor control NIET)
  • Brainstem 

    • Receives/processes multiple GI signals 

    • Midbrain:
      • Autonomic functions 
      • Substantia nigra & VTA contain dopamine neurons ->reward circuit
  • What are the functions of the Cerebellum (small brain)
    • Motor control:
      • classis - well established
    • Cognitive functions:
      • Mounting evidence (=steeds meer bewijs)
    • Feeding control:
      • Mounting evidence (=steeds meer bewijs)

    May link somatic and visceral systems. Under investigation....
  • The forebrain consists of (is divided in):
    • Cerebral cortex
    • Basal ganglia
    • Diencephalon
  • One part of the forebrain is the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is divided in:
    Two hemispheres
    • 4-5 lobes
      • Frontal lobe
      • Parietal lobe
      • Temporal lobe
      • Occipital lobe
      • Limbic 'lobe' / limbic system 
    • connected by the corpus callosum
  • Why is the white matter white?
    Because of myelin 

    White inside, gay outside
  • One part of the forebrain is diencephalon, in which two parts is diencephalon divided?
    • Thalamus 
    • Hypothalamus 
  • What are the terms to navigate the brain?
    • Medial: near the midline
    • Middle
    • Lateral: near the outer edge

    • Dorsal = superior
    • Ventral = interior 
  • Where is this blob located?
  • There are three ways to slice the brain
    • Transverse = axial 
    • Coronal 
    • Sagittal 
  • Two ways to view the brain
    • Radiological (R=L): upward from the feet
    • Neurological (R=R): downward from the head ("brain surgeon view")
  • Hoe kan je er zeker van zijn dat je weet welke kant links en welke kant rechts is van het brein
    Door het toevoegen van een marker
  • In what kind of ways is there brain nomenclature options
    • Brodmann areas
    • Anatomical label 
    • Anatomical location 
    • Functional name 
    • (Cytoarchitectonic name)
  • Brain atlases - 'standard space'

    • Common reference 
    • Needed for 'pooling' brains in group analyses 
      • 'normalization' = warping 
  • Talairach space
    • Founder: Jean Talairach
    • Based on the brain of one 60-y old French woman
    • Talairach & Tournoux atlases

    • 3D; stereotaxic coordinate system
    • Origin at Anterior Commissure (=midsagittal), Ac-PC line is the y-axis, should be horizontal

    Nadeel: gebaseerd op 1 brein 
  • MNI space
    • Montreal Neurological Institute space: MNI space
      • Roughly equivalent to Talairach space, same origin (origin at anterior commissure)
      • Brain templates based on average anatomical MRI's of healthy right-handed volunteers acquired by the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM; n=305 / 152 / 452)
  • What are the notes on atlases
    • Very useful, but:
    • There is great inter individual aeration in
      • Sulci and gerij: every cortex is unique
      • Size of ventricles
    • Affected by many factors
    • --> Group-specific (MNI) templates
    • --> Probability atlases
  • What are the gender differences
    • Greatest effects in regions affected by sex hormones during brain development 
    • Several fMRI studies show effect of menstrual cycle/sex hormones on food reward responses
  • What is the biggest lobe? And wat are the functions of this lobe?
    Frontal lobe

    • Stimulus evaluation, decision making
    • Controlling movement - planning behaviour
  • What are the relevant subparts of the frontal lobe?
    • Orbitofrontal cortex 
    • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    • Medial prefrontal cortex 
  • Which lobe is next to the frontal lobe? And what are its functions
    Parietal lobe

    • Somatosensory processing
    • Controls 'bodily sensations'
    • Visual processing (dorsal stream = 'where')
  • Where is the temporal lobe located? And what are its functions
    • Auditory processing 
    • Visual processing (ventral stream = 'what')
    • Hippocampus (limbic area)
  • Where is the occipital lobe located? And what are its function(s)
    Visual processing
  • Where is the insula located?
    • Insular cortex (insula = island)
    • Hidden in the lateral sulcus
    • Concealed by parts of frontal, parietal & temporal lobes
    • Operculum = 'lid' e.g. Frontal operculum
  • What are the functions of the insula
    • 'limbis' area, emotion, interception, homeostasis
    • anterior insula: olfactory, gustatory and limbic function; subjective feelings
    • posterior insula: perception of bodily sensations, e.g. Pain, visceral sensations, gastric distension
    • key connecting area. Connects with S2, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, ...
  • What is the '5th lobe' ? And what are its functions
    Limbic system 

    • Subcortical 
    • Emotion, learning, motivation, autonomic functions
    • Key players: amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus

    • other/associated areas include
      • Basal ganglia ('reward')
      • Orbitofrontal cortex
      • Piriform cortex (smell)
  • Which limbic brain structure is this?
  • What are the functions of the hippocampus and where is it located
    • Hippocampus = 'sea horse'
    • Location: medial temporal lobe
    • Formation of memories
    • Forming associations; (dietary) learning
    • Spatial navigation
  • What are the functions of amygdala and where are they located?
    • 'almond'
    • controls autonomic, emotional and sexual behaviour 
    • Fear, arousal - emotion (unpleasant as well as pleasant)
    • Couples learned cues to adaptive response 
    • Valence (relevance); e.g. Hunger modulates Am response to food stimuli 
  • What is the location of the basal ganglia and what are its functions
    • Motor control!
    • Reward processing - approach/avoidance
    • Striatum = putamen + pallidum + caudate
      • Dorsal striatum
      • Ventral striatum
        • nucleus accumens --> 'hedonic hotspot'
  • Where is the Thalamus located
    Sensory relay
  • Where is the hypothalamus located and what are its functions?
    • Homeastasis!
    • Integration with hormones
    • Energy intake regulation 
      • Hunger
    • Thirst
    • Much more; stress, slee, ...
  • 5 characteristics of the hypothalamus
    • Integration of neural and hormonal signals 
    • Sensitive to glucose
    • Sensitive to blood-borne hormones e.g.: insulin, leptin, gherkin, PYY, CCK, GLP-1
    • Multiple neuropeptides e.g.: NPY, AgRP/POMC, alfaMSH
    • Implicated in energy intake regulation; hunger (lat), satiety (vm)
  • Spinal cord consists of ...
    • Cranial nerves - ascending and descending white matter tracts 
    • (dorsal horn) - sensory and interneurons
    • (ventral horn) - motor neurons that project to muscles
  • How many cranial nerves are there?
    • 12 cranial nerves 
    • Receptor cells --> sensors, 'senses'
    • Autonomic & somatic part 

    1. Olfactory 
    2. optic
    3. oculomotor
    4. trochlear
    5. trigeminal 
    6. abducens
    7. facial
    8. auditory 
    9. glossopharyngeal
    10. vagus
    11. spinal accessory 
    12. hypoglossal 
  • Where does the autonomic nervous system contains of?
    • Parasympathetic
      • Rest & digest/maintenance
      • Acetylcholine
    • Sympathetic
      • Action (fight/flight/freeze)
      • Norepinephrine (=noradrenaline)
    • Enteric nervous system 
  • Peripheral nervous sytem -->
    • Sensory perception, nutrient sensing --> cephalic phase responses
    • Most relevant nerves: 'sensory' nerves in the head and the vagus nerve (X)
  • What is needed for vision?
    • Cranial nerve II
    • Thalamic nuclei 
    • Primary & secondary visual cortex in occipital & temporal/parietal lobe 
    • Visual processing e.g. Attention is modulated by frontal cortex; top-down control
  • Which regions will get active when looking at food?
    • Visual cortex
    • Posterior insula
    • Amygdala
    • Orbitofrontal cortex 

    • Hunger
    • BMI
    • Attention 
  • How is the olfaction registered?
    • Olfactory nerve (CN I)
    • Olfactory bulb --> tract
    • Piriform cortex
    • Orbitofrontal cortex (insula, amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, thupthalamus 

    Geur gaat direct de hersenen in en komt niet via de thalamus eerst 
  • Orthonasal --> via de neus naar de olfactory epithelium 
    Retronasal --> via de keel/mond naar de olfactory epithelium 
  • How does gustation works?
    • Identify substances which promote/disrupt homeostasis
    • Tongue - papillae - taste buds - taste receptor cells
    • CN 7 (VII) facial, IX glossopharyngeal, X vagus
    • --> Nucl. Solitary Tract (NTS, brainstem)

    Alle receptors zitten overal

    • Brainstem (NTS)
    • Thalamus (bpm nucleus)
    • Anterior insula/frontal operculum (primary taste cortex)
    • Amygdala
    • Prefrontal cortex: caudolateral OFC, medial OFC (secondary taste cortex)
  • Trigeminal sense -->=
    • CN V (3 branches)
    • 'pain' (hot, cool, carbonation, spiciness)
    • Brainstem, thalamus
    • Somatosensory cortex
    • Limbic system; insula, OFC
  • Flavor: multimodal integration
    • Example odor/taste integration 
      • sweet odor: anterior insula 
    • Candidate region for integration of all 3 chemical senses: Anterior insula / frontal operculum 
    • Still under investigation 
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Latest added flashcards

What are the functions of the hippocampus and where is it located
  • Hippocampus = 'sea horse'
  • Location: medial temporal lobe
  • Formation of memories
  • Forming associations; (dietary) learning
  • Spatial navigation
True/FalseThe olfactory induced cephalic phase input runs through the brainstem
True/FalseThe initial cephalic phase stimulation decreases hunger
True/FalseLonger oro-sensory stimulation results in faster gastric emptying rates
In a modified sham feeding paradigm in human volunteers, the test food is:chewed but not swallowedChewed and swallowedNot chewed and not swallowedNot chewed and swallowed 
Chewed but not swallowed
Nutrition is also a monocausal risk factor, in which way?
In sporadic cases
  • Different micronutrient deficiencies: vitamin B1, Vitamin B12 and niacin (vitamin B3 -> 'pellagra')
  • Toxic effects of certain nutrients: excessive alcohol use --> Korsakov
  • Creutzfeldt-Jabob --> via prion contaminated beef
Liking & wanting (food reward) =
Liking = hedonic value
  • Preference
  • 'Psychological and explicit'
  • Serotonin
  • 'Hedonic rating'

Wanting = motivation to obtain food (primary rewards)
  • Depletion: 'hunger'
  • 'Physiological and implicit'
  • Dopamine
  • 'Degree of effort' (task)

Normally co-vary
What produces leptin?
Primarily produced by adipocytes
  • adipose leptin (--> brain; hypothalamus)
  • Reflects mainly subcutaneous fat store
  • Long-term regulation of food intake/energy balance

Weinig data over bekend:
also produced in the stomach (gastric mucosa) 'gastric leptin'
  • secreted after feeding, also into gastric lumen
  • short-term regulation of digestion
    • delays gastric emptying
    • absorption of nutrients (intestine)
    • secretion of gastric, intestinal & pancreatic hormones
What is the inverse problem of source localisation in EEG?

When measuring the inside from the outside an inverse problem occurs. Any signal can consist of an infinite number of possible dipoles. So in other words, different sources from inside can lead to the same outcome on the outside.
What is the idee/mechanisms behind the Mediterranean diet?
  • Antioxidant intake might counteract damaging effects of free radicals on neurons, there protecting against neurodegenerative diseases
  • Reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, stroke
  • Reduced risk of WMHV (White Matter Hyperintensity Volume): a marker of small vessel damage in the brain

= 13% reduced risk (2010)
= 40% lower risk (2013)