Summary Class notes - Pathology

- Pathology
- S. Amor; M. Bugiani
- 2019 - 2020
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Biomedical Sciences
407 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Pathology

  • 1580684400 Lecture 1

  • What is a sign? What is an example?
    What you can see (e.g. Imbalance).
  • What is a symptom? What is an example?
    What you can't see (e.g. Nausea).
  • What are morphological manifestations?
    How the disease changes the tissue and organ that is affected.
  • What are functional manifestations?
    The consequences of the morphological manifestations.
  • What is relevant information about a disease?
    • Diagnosis
    • Prognosis
    • Prediction
  • 1580770800 Lecture 2

  • What is the difference between etiology and pathogenesis?
    Etiology is what causes the disease. Pathogenesis is what maintains the disease (= mechanism of disease).
  • What is the disadvantage of multicellular individuals?
    The internal milieu is optimized for functioning and thus attractive for intruders. Therefore, you need an effective defence.
    Organisation and clear division of tasks in mandatory and thus the replenishing of cells is needed (cell proliferation).
  • What is the difference between adaptation and cell death?
    Adaptation means that the cell adapts to a new situation. When a cell can no longer adapt it will die.
  • What is hypertrophy?
    The increase in size of cells.
  • What is hyperplasia?
    The increase in number of cells.
  • What is atrophy?
    The decrease of tissue by decrease of cell size and/or number
  • What is autophagy?
    Cells under poor conditions eat itself, they are taken up by lysosomes.
  • What is needed for proteasomal degradation?
  • What is apoptosis?
    Programmed cell death
  • What happens to apoptotic bodies?
    They are taken up by macrophages.
  • What is metaplasia?
    The replacement of one tissue by a (normal) other one.
  • What is Barret's metaplasia?
    Esophagus becomes more resistant to acid (refluxes). Stratified squamous epithelium changes into single columnar epithelium.
  • What happens if a cell swells? Why does this happen?
    If a cell swells this is because the Na-K-ATPase pump fails. Na will accumulate in the cell and this attracts water so the cell swells up.
  • What is coagulation necrosis?
    Necrosis in which the structure remains but cells are dead, there is no nucleus anymore.
  • What is colliquative necrosis? Where does this mainly happen?
    Necrosis in which the tissue dissolves, it becomes liquid. This mainly happens in the brain.
  • What is caseous necrosis? In which disease does this happen?
    Necrosis in which the tissue looks like cheese. This happens in tuberculosis.
  • What is fat necrosis? Where does this happen?
    Necrosis in which lipase releases fatty acids. This happens in the pancreas (pancreatitis).
  • What is fibrinoid necrosis?
    Necrosis that results in the formation of fibrous tissue.
  • What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?
    Necrosis means that the cell swells up and breaks down completely, with an inflammatory response.
    Apoptosis means that proteins are not released but taken up by macrophages, there is no inflammatory response.
  • What is the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of apoptosis?
    The mitochondria (Bcl-2 family) is involved in the intrinsic pathway. The signal comes from inside the cell.
    The extrinsic pathway has a signal from outside the cell (FasL, TNF). The signal activates a receptor and a cascade leads to apoptosis.
  • What type of signals activate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis?
    • Lack of survival genes
    • Damage
    • Stress
  • What is the apoptosome?
    The apoptosome activates caspase-9 which leads to apoptosis.
  • What is meant with ER stress? In which disease is this involved?
    Misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. This can have different effects:
    • Trigger the caspase system, leading to apoptosis
    • Trigger degradation of the misfolded protein
    • Decrease protein synthesis 

    This process is involved in neurogenerative diseases, such as dementia.
  • What happens to a cell when it gets older?
    A cell undergoes telomere-shortening and this means that the cell is no longer able to divide.
  • How can telomerase be made?
    By telomerase
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Latest added flashcards

Is a subdural hemorrhage because of the breakage of an artery or a vein?
What are the consequences of a cardiac tumor?
  • Obstruction: mass
  • Arrhythmia: invasion
  • Rupture/tamponade: bleed
  • Peripheral infarctions: embolus
What is the most malignant tumor of the heart?
What is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARCV)?
Fatty replacement in the right or left ventricle wall
What is the difference between hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy?
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the left ventricle gets smaller (wall gets thicker)
Dilated cardiomyopathy: the left ventricle gets bigger (wall gets thinner)
What are the two problems with hypertrophic (obstructive) cardiomyopathy?
Diastolic dysfunction & outflow obstruction
What are the interventions of an infectious endocarditis?
Repair or replace
What are the two bacteria that can cause infectious endocarditis?
Streptococcus viridans & staphylococcus aureus
What is rheumatic heart disease?
An infection with A streptococci that leads to the acute phase of pancarditis which can lead to stenosis and insufficiency of the valves.
What is the intervention of a tamponade?
  • Drug therapy
  • Stent
  • Bypass operation