Summary Class notes - PE

- PE
- Shirley
- 2017 - 2018
- Itchen college
- A levels
213 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - PE

  • 1490652000 skeletal system

  • Name the skeletons 5 functions.
    1. Stores minerals-  Calcium
    2. Support - acts as a framework
    3. Movement - lever system which muscles pull on
    4. Protection - Flat bones protect vital organs.
    5. Blood cell production - Occurs in bone marrow of long bones.
  • Types of bone:

    Long bones - Femur, Humerus, Tibia, Radius, Phalanges  
    • Levers for movement
    • Site of red blood cell production

    Short bones - Carpals, Tarsals
    • Strong-resistant to compression forces.

    Flat bones- Cranium, Pelvis, Sternum, Scapula.
    • Protection
    • suitable for muscle attachment.

    Irregular bones - Vertebrae
    • Protect the spinal cord.

    Sesamoid bone - patella
    • Eases joint movement
  • 1490738400 structure of a synovial joint

  • Ligament:

    • A tough, slightly elastic band of connective tissue.
    • Ligaments connect bone to bone and stabilise the joint during movement.
  • Synovial fluid:

    • A lubricating liquid contained within the joint cavity.
    • Reduces friction and nourishes the articular cartilage 
  • Articular cartilage:

    • Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones.
    • Absorbs shock and allows friction free movement
  • Joint capsule:

    • A fibrous sac with an inner synovial membrane.
    • Encloses and strengthens the joint , membrane secretes synovial fluid. 
  • Bursa:

    • A closed fluid filled sac found where tendons rub over bone.
    • Reduces friction between the tendon and bone. 
  • What are the effects of aerobic and resistance training on joint stability?
    • Increased strength of ligaments
    • Increased length and elasticity of ligaments
    • Increased strength of tendons
    • Increased strength of muscles crossing the joint
    • Muscle hypertrophy
    • Articular cartilage thickens
  • What are the effects of high impact or contact sport on joint stability?
    • Connective tissue damage- sprains and strains
    • Ligament damage - ligaments may overstretch and never return to their original strength
  • 1490824800 movement analysis

  • Sagittal plane:

    • lies vertically
    • Divides the body into left and right halves (sides)
  • What movements the sagittal plane?
    • Flexion
    • Extension
    • Dorsi flexion
    • Plantar flexion
  • Frontal plane:

    • Lies vertically
    • Divides the body into front and back 
  • What movement patterns are through the frontal plane?
    • Abduction
    • Adduction
  • Transverse plane:

    • Lies horizontally
    • Divides body into top and bottom
  • What movement patterns occur through the transverse plane?
    • Horizontal flexion
    • Horizontal extension
    • Medial rotation 
    • Lateral rotation
  • What is the 'origin'?
    Point of muscular attachment to a stationary bone which stays relatively fixed during muscular contraction.
  • What is meant by 'insertion'?
    Point of muscular attachment to a movable bone which gets closer to the origin during muscular contraction
  • What is an Agonist?
    The muscle that contracts and is responsible for the movement at a joint - also known as the prime mover.
  • What is the antagonist?
    The muscle that lengthens and works in opposition to the agonist to coordinate the movement.
  • What is a fixator muscle?
    A muscle that contracts to stabilise one joint in the body while another is moving. Eg. Deltoid
  • Elbow:

    Flexion= Bicep Brachii
    Extension= Tricep Brachii
  • Knee:

    Flexion= hamstring ( bicep femoris)
    Extension= Quadricep (rectus femoris)
  • Ankle:

    Dorsi flexion=
    Tibialis anterior
    Plantar flexion= Gastrocnemis and soleus
  • Wrist:

    Flexion= wrist flexors
    Extension= wrist extensors
  • Hip:

    Flexion = iliopsoas
    Extension= gluteaus maximus

    Adduction= Adductors
    Abduction = gluteaus minimus and medius     

    Medial rotation
    = gluteaus medius and minimus
    Lateral rotation = gluteaus maximus
  • Shoulder:

    Flexion = Anterior deltoid
    Extension = Posterior deltoid

    = latissimus dorsi
    Abduction = Middle deltoid

    Horizontal flexion = pectoralis major
    Horizontal extension = posterior deltoid

    Medial rotation = teres major and subscapularis
    Lateral rotation = teres minor and infraspinatous
  • Types of contractions:

    •   In normal sporting examples, all agonists will concentrically contract.
    • In a 'quirky' example the agonist is opposite to normal. Eg. It would be the tricep brachii rather than bicep brachii for flexion at the elbow.
    • In a quirky example the agonist eccentrically contracts.

    Quirky examples:
    1. Downward phase of a bicep curl
    2. Downward phase of a press up
    3. Downward phase of a squat
  • Hamstring group = Bicep femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus 

    Quadricep group = Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastas medialis
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What is a micro-cycle?
  • Involves short term training plans over 1-3 weeks and can be split into a number of sessions.
  • Eg. Meso cycle may be to improve sprint starts so micro cycles may be flexibility training, skill based and power training. 
What is a meso-cycle?
  • Involves a lid term training plan.
  • 4-16 weeks, depending on the phase of training the performer is in
  • Aim is to achieve mid term goal.
What is a macro-cycle?
  • Involves a long-term plan.
  • Could be yearly or two-yearly
  • Eg. World championships
  • Aim is to achieve long term goal.
What are the aims of periodisation?
  1. To ensure training is structured to give realistic and achievable goals
  2. To avoid injury and burnout
  3. To ensure a performer reaches their physiological peak at the correct time.
What is periodisation?
  • Organised division of training into blocks, each with a specific time frame and goal.
What are the disadvantages of direct gas analysis?
  • Maximal test- motivation
  • Access to expensive equipment required
  • Cannot be used by the elderly/ill
What are the advantages of the direct gas analysis?
  • Direct, accurate measurement
  • Accurate, valid, reliable
  • Performed during different exercises so can be sport specific
What is the direct gas analysis test?
  • Subject performs continuous exercise at progressive intensities to exhaustion-maximal
  • Expired air captured by a mask with a tube to a gas analyser
  • Concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide are measured
  • Results can be graphed.
What are the disadvantages of the cooper run?
  • Only a prediction
  • Maximal test - motivation
  • Cannot be used for the elderly
  • Not sport specific
What are the advantages of the cooper run?
  • Large groups can be tested
  • Simple and cheap
  • Norms chart available
  • Simple VO2 max calculation