Summary Class notes - Perception & Action

- Perception & Action
- Victor Lamme
- 2019 - 2020
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
344 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Perception & Action

  • 1567375200 1: The Brain-Mind link 1

  • What is the Encephalization Quotient?
    Brain weight vs body mass: E=CS^r
    E= brain weight
    C = Cephalization factor
    S = Body weight
    r= constant (0,66 for mammals)

    EQ = The size of the brain/weight ration compared to other animals
  • What kind of animals succeed more in problem solving?
    - Animals with large brains, 
    - Animals with high Cephalisation.
  • Does brain size and encephalization depend on social behaviour?
    Yes, social animals usually have bigger brains.
  • What does lissencephaly mean? What does it mean in the human brain?
    The differences in gyration. (a sea cow has almost none gyri, while a land cow has lots.)

    Lissencephaly in a human brain means severe developmental delay, seizures and early death.
  • Why is it difficult, if not impossible, to make allometric approaches about the relation ship between brain size and body?

    - Body 
    Weight issues (Birds having to fly)
    - Protection from cold, (fat of whales)
    - Muscle proportion

    - Cortex vs Subcortical vs Cerebellum
    - Gyration
    - Cortical thickness
    - Neurons vs Glial cells (supportive tissue)
    - Neuron Density
  • What is hydranencephaly?
    - Obstruction of cerebrospinal drainage during early fetal development
    - Patients have no or little cortex, brain stem and cerebellum intact

    Leads to:
    - Mental retardation, low visual perception, no walking

    However still intact:
    - Emotions, liking and preferences, social behavior
    - Some word recognition, music preferences    
    - Example of man with this disease shows that we might not even need a brain at all. Has almost no brain left, still married, father of two, IQ of 75
  • What parts of the thalamus differ & for what reason?
    -Sexually Dismorphic Nucleus (SDN): Larger in males than females

    - Bed Nucleus Stria Treminalis (BST): Larger in males than females. Smaller in men that feel women.

    -Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: (SCN) Larger in woman than men. Larger in homosexual man than hetero sexual man
  • What is golgi staining en what does it do?
    Fills the entire cell with silver
    Reveals shape of individual cells
    Fills some cells, not all (why?)
  • What are stellate cells and pyramidal cells?
    Stellate cells: Small cells, circular dendrites, short axons, often inhibitory

    Pyramidal cells: Triangular cell body, apical dendrites, ling axons that leave the cortex, mostly excitatory.
  • What do we call the study of cellular composition of the brain?
  • What are the different layers in cytoarchitecture?
    Integration Layer 1: Only fibers
    Processing Layers 2&3
    Input layer: 4
    Output Layer: 5&6
  • What is Brodmans map?
    - A map based on structure --> Not a functional map
  • What is Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM)?
    - The relative concentration of gray matter of particular brain regions measured with structural MRI.
    - Related to cognitive abilities, personality, experience etc
  • What are Retrograde tracers (WGH-HRP) and Anterograde tracers (Pha-L)?
    Retrograde: tracing neural connections from their point of termination to their source.
    Anterograde: tracing neural connections from their source to their point of termination
  • How do we trace anatomical connections in humans?
    - Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
    - Using fractional Anisotrophy of MRI voxels
  • What is Grapheme-Color Synesthesia? And can we see that in the brain?
    Seeing letters and numbers in specific colors.
    Yes, in the brain we can see an increased structural connectivity.
  • What types of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia are there?
    - Associators: Mental Link
    - Projectors: Actually seeing the colors
  • What is the brain difference between Grapheme-color synesthesia projecors & assosciators?
    - Projectors: greater connectivity in inferior temporal cortex
  • What is the difference between left and right hemisphere regarding cell bodies?

    - Pyramidal cell bodies are larger on the left than on the right in Heschl's gyrus.
    - (but not in Angular Gyrus, a region posterior to Wernicke, not involved in language)
  • IN SUM: macroscopic and microscopic anatomical, next to functional differences clearly exist between the two hemispheres, but are never totally absolute The relation between the anatomical and functional differences is not always clear
  • Why are lesions so important?
    Most of what we know of brain functions come from lesion studies. For example Broca's area.
  • What is pyramidal weakness and what does it teach us?
    Damage to corticospinal tract paresis,
    - With spasticity/flaccidity: A patters of weakness in the extensors or flexors.
    --> Learns us how the CST (corticospinal tract) influences balance between alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord
  • What is cerebellar ataxia?
    Endpoint/intention tremor, slurred speech
    --> shown us the functions of the cerebellum, such as balance, walking, control of fine movements, speech, coordination of eye movements
  • What is the foramina?
    Various places where the cranial nerves (both sensory and motor functions) exit the skull.
  • Where does the facial nerve leave the skull? And what problem may that cause?
    Below the mastoid, having passed close to the inner ear. It can get obstructed by ear infections or other problems in that region: Bell's palsy (gezicht slaphangen)
  • What is the Sella Turcica?
    Turkish Saddle,
    This is where the pituitary gland sits, in a bone cavity at the base of the skull.
    Just above lies the optic chiasm
  • Why is the first world war so important for brain research?
    Use of FMJ bullets produced clean brain lesions an started the study of retinotopy.
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How do patiënts with left hemisphere damage do in Global precedence (Navon Task)? And right hemisphere damage?
Left hemisphere damage: Trouble copying local shapes.
Right hemisphere damage: Trouble copying global shape.
What is the difference in global precedence between the 2 hemisphere's?
- Global information faster in right hemisphere: (Stimuli in the left visual field)
- Local information faster in left hemisphere (stimuli in right visual field) 

Patiënts with right hemisphere damage: trouble copying global shape.
Patiënts with left hemisphere damage trouble copying local shapes.
What does the Navon task show?
(Large C made out of small C's or small other items)
Subjects have to detect global target or local targets.
Global targets detected faster; Congruent targets detected faster.

Shows: Y-type reaches brain quicker than X-type (but global precedence is way larger than the RT difference)
What information from the retina reaches the brain first?
Y-type (Magnocellular/Parasol) has faster conduction than X-type (Parvocellular/Midget)
What does spatial frequency depend on?
- Contrast & Brightness
- Human age
How does spatial frequency sensitivity depend on receptive field size in retinal ganglion cells?
Center component of RGC: Sensitive low to high SF's.
Surround component of RGC: Low to intermediate SF's.

Combined: Characteristic SF tuning of RGC's
§§Why is our perception of luminance not veridical?
Because the retina encodes contrast.
(contrast illusions)
How does the retinal network encode?
- From luminance (receptors) --> contrast (bipolar/ganglion cells)
- From graded potentials: Hyper/depolarization(cones, bipolars, horizontals) --> Action potentials (Ganglion cells; Long axons)
What is the Mexican Hat? Where does it take place?
Center-surround tuning (profile).
- Starts in bipolar cells because of negative feedback of horizontal cells.
- Subsequently also happens in ganglion cells
Horizontal cells receive ...? What do they provide?
Horizontal cells receive signals from regions of receptors
- They provide negative feedback