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Summary - Class notes - Perception & Action
1567375200 1: The Brain-Mind link 1
What is the Encephalization Quotient?Brain weight vs body mass: E=CS^r
E= brain weight
C = Cephalization factor
S = Body weight
r= constant (0,66 for mammals)
EQ = The size of the brain/weight ration compared to other animals
What kind of animals succeed more in problem solving?- Animals with large brains,
- Animals with high Cephalisation.
Does brain size and encephalization depend on social behaviour?Yes, social animals usually have bigger brains.
What does lissencephaly mean? What does it mean in the human brain?The differences in gyration. (a sea cow has almost none gyri, while a land cow has lots.)
Lissencephaly in a human brain means severe developmental delay, seizures and early death.
Why is it difficult, if not impossible, to make allometric approaches about the relation ship between brain size and body?
- Weight issues (Birds having to fly)
- Protection from cold, (fat of whales)
- Muscle proportion
- Cortex vs Subcortical vs Cerebellum
- Cortical thickness
- Neurons vs Glial cells (supportive tissue)
- Neuron Density
What is hydranencephaly?- Obstruction of cerebrospinal drainage during early fetal development
- Patients have no or little cortex, brain stem and cerebellum intact
- Mental retardation, low visual perception, no walking
However still intact:
- Emotions, liking and preferences, social behavior
- Some word recognition, music preferences
- Example of man with this disease shows that we might not even need a brain at all. Has almost no brain left, still married, father of two, IQ of 75
What parts of the thalamus differ & for what reason?-Sexually Dismorphic Nucleus (SDN): Larger in males than females
- Bed Nucleus Stria Treminalis (BST): Larger in males than females. Smaller in men that feel women.
-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: (SCN) Larger in woman than men. Larger in homosexual man than hetero sexual man
What is golgi staining en what does it do?Fills the entire cell with silver
Reveals shape of individual cells
Fills some cells, not all (why?)
What are stellate cells and pyramidal cells?Stellate cells: Small cells, circular dendrites, short axons, often inhibitory
Pyramidal cells: Triangular cell body, apical dendrites, ling axons that leave the cortex, mostly excitatory.
What do we call the study of cellular composition of the brain?Cytoarchitecture
What are the different layers in cytoarchitecture?Integration Layer 1: Only fibers
Processing Layers 2&3
Input layer: 4
Output Layer: 5&6
What is Brodmans map?- A map based on structure --> Not a functional map
What is Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM)?- The relative concentration of gray matter of particular brain regions measured with structural MRI.
- Related to cognitive abilities, personality, experience etc
What are Retrograde tracers (WGH-HRP) and Anterograde tracers (Pha-L)?Retrograde: tracing neural connections from their point of termination to their source.
Anterograde: tracing neural connections from their source to their point of termination
How do we trace anatomical connections in humans?- Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
- Using fractional Anisotrophy of MRI voxels
What is Grapheme-Color Synesthesia? And can we see that in the brain?Seeing letters and numbers in specific colors.
Yes, in the brain we can see an increased structural connectivity.
What types of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia are there?- Associators: Mental Link
- Projectors: Actually seeing the colors
What is the brain difference between Grapheme-color synesthesia projecors & assosciators?- Projectors: greater connectivity in inferior temporal cortex
What is the difference between left and right hemisphere regarding cell bodies?
- Pyramidal cell bodies are larger on the left than on the right in Heschl's gyrus.
- (but not in Angular Gyrus, a region posterior to Wernicke, not involved in language)
IN SUM: macroscopic and microscopic anatomical, next to functional differences clearly exist between the two hemispheres, but are never totally absolute The relation between the anatomical and functional differences is not always clear
Why are lesions so important?Most of what we know of brain functions come from lesion studies. For example Broca's area.
What is pyramidal weakness and what does it teach us?Damage to corticospinal tract paresis,
- With spasticity/flaccidity: A patters of weakness in the extensors or flexors.
--> Learns us how the CST (corticospinal tract) influences balance between alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord
What is cerebellar ataxia?Endpoint/intention tremor, slurred speech
--> shown us the functions of the cerebellum, such as balance, walking, control of fine movements, speech, coordination of eye movements
What is the foramina?Various places where the cranial nerves (both sensory and motor functions) exit the skull.
Where does the facial nerve leave the skull? And what problem may that cause?Below the mastoid, having passed close to the inner ear. It can get obstructed by ear infections or other problems in that region: Bell's palsy (gezicht slaphangen)
What is the Sella Turcica?Turkish Saddle,
This is where the pituitary gland sits, in a bone cavity at the base of the skull.
Just above lies the optic chiasm
Why is the first world war so important for brain research?Use of FMJ bullets produced clean brain lesions an started the study of retinotopy.
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