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Summary - Class notes - Physics 1500
1481497200 Chapters 2-7
What two classes of motion did Aristotle advocate?
-Natural motion and violent motion
-Earthly motion and heavenly motion
-Propelled motion and passive motion
-Vertical motion and horizontal motionNatural motion and violent motion
How does Newton's first law of motion relate to Galileo's concept of inertia?
-Newton refined Galileo's concept of inertia and made it his first law of motion.
-Newton replaced Galileo's concept of inertia with his three laws of motion.
-Newton expressed Galileo's concept of inertia with the inertia equation.
-Newton's first law of motion refuted Galileo's concept of inertia.Newton refined Galileo's concept of inertia and made it his first law of motion.
What type of path does a moving object follow in the absence of a force?
-It moves in a straight line and eventually slows to a stop.
-It follows a parabolic trajectory in the absence of a force.
-It follows a circular path in the absence of a force.
-It continues to move in a straight line at a constant speed.It continues to move in a straight line at a constant speed.
What is the net force when a pair of 5-N forces simultaneously act in the same direction on an object?
-10 N10 N
Consider a book that weighs 15 N at rest on a flat table. How many newtons of support force does the table exert on the book?
-15 newtons down
-30 newtons up
-15 newtons up
-0 newtons15 newtons up
A pair of 10-N vectors at right angles to each other has a resultant of about
-none of the above14 N.
If you toss a coin straight upward while in a train moving at constant velocity, the coin will land
-as if you were at rest.
-in front of you.
-in back of you.as if you were at rest.
Earth continually moves about 30 km/s through space, which means the wall you stand next to also is moving at 30 km/s. When you jump vertically the wall doesn't slam into you because
-the speeds of you and Earth cancel out.
-motion of the Sun counteracts your motion.
-your upward motion is small compared with Earth's speed.
-you're moving horizontally just as fast as the wall.you're moving horizontally just as fast as the wall.
What kind of speed is registered by an automobile speedometer?
-Minimum speedInstantaneous speed
If a car is moving at 90 km/h and it rounds a corner, also at 90 km/h, does it maintain a constant speed? A constant velocity?
-It maintains a constant speed and a constant velocity.
-It maintains a constant speed, but does not maintain a constant velocity.
-It maintains a constant velocity, but not a constant speed.
-It does not maintain a constant speed or a constant velocity.It maintains a constant speed, but does not maintain a constant velocity.
What relationship did Galileo discover about a ball's acceleration and the steepness of an incline? What acceleration occurs when the plane is vertical?
-The acceleration decreases as the angle of incline increases. With a vertical plane, the acceleration is zero.
-The acceleration is always the free-fall acceleration, at all angles of incline.
-When the plane steepens, the acceleration increases. For a vertical plane, the acceleration is zero.
-The steeper the incline, the greater the acceleration. On a vertical incline, the ball is in free fall.The steeper the incline, the greater the acceleration. On a vertical incline, the ball is in free fall.
In its first second of free fall, a dropped softball will fall a vertical distance of ______.
-20 m5 m.
What is the distance fallen for a freely falling object 1 s after being dropped from a rest position? What is the distance for a 4-s drop?
-It falls 5 m in 1 s and 20 m in 4 s.
-It falls 5 m in 1 s and 80 m in 4 s.
-It falls 10 m in 1 s and 160 m in 4 s.
-It falls 5 m in 1 s and 5 m in 4 s.It falls 5 m in 1 s and 80 m in 4 s.
Given the measurements 10 m, 10 m/s, and 10 m/s2, which is a measure of speed, which is a measure of distance, and which is a measure of acceleration?
-10 m is distance, 10 m/s is acceleration, and 10 m/s2 is speed.
-10 m is speed, 10 m/s is distance, and 10 m/s2 is acceleration.
-10 m is distance, 10 m/s is speed, and 10 m/s2 is acceleration.
-10 m is acceleration, 10 m/s is speed, and 10 m/s2 is distance.10 m is distance, 10 m/s is speed, and 10 m/s2 is acceleration.
An object covers a distance of 8 meters in the first second of travel, another 8 meters during the next second, and 8 meters again during the third second. Its acceleration is
-0 m/s2.0 m/s2.
The average speed of a horse that gallops 10 kilometers in 30 minutes is
-15 km/h.20 km/h.
When you push horizontally on a crate that doesn't slide on a level floor, how great is the force of friction on the crate?
-The friction force is equal to the mass of the crate times its acceleration.
-The friction force is equal to and in the same direction as your push.
-The friction force is zero.
-The friction force is equal and opposite to your push.The friction force is equal and opposite to your push.
Once the crate is sliding, how hard do you push to keep it moving at constant velocity?
-You push with a force equal to and opposite the dynamic friction force.
-You no longer need to push once the crate is sliding.
-You push with a force slightly greater than the dynamic friction force.
-You push with a force slightly greater than the static friction force.You push with a force equal to and opposite the dynamic friction force.
Which varies with location, mass or weight?
-Both mass and weight are independent of location.
-Mass varies with location, but weight does not.
-Weight varies with location, but mass does not.
-Both mass and weight vary with location.Weight varies with location, but mass does not.
How does acceleration depend on mass?
-Acceleration is independent of mass.
-Acceleration is constant at 9.8 m/s2.
-Acceleration is proportional to mass.
-Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass.Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass.
What is the condition for an object experiencing free fall?
-When gravity is the only force acting on an object, it is in free fall.
-When the net force on an object is zero, it is in free fall.
-When there are no horizontal forces on an object, it is in free fall.
-When the net force on an object is equal and opposite to the gravity force, the object is in free fall.When gravity is the only force acting on an object, it is in free fall.
Give an example of what it means to say mass and weight are proportional to each other?
-If the weight doubles, then the mass is cut in half.
-If the mass doubles, then the weight doubles, too.
-If the mass doubles, then the weight stays the same.
-If the mass doubles, then the weight is cut in half.If the mass doubles, then the weight doubles, too.
If the mass of a sliding block is tripled while a constant net force is applied, by how much does the acceleration change?
-The acceleration is zero.
-The acceleration remains the same.
-The acceleration triples.
-The acceleration is reduced to 1/3 of its original value.The acceleration is reduced to 1/3 of its original value.
How does the direction of acceleration compare with the direction of the net force that produces it?
-The acceleration is zero.
-The acceleration is at right angles to the net force.
-The acceleration is in the direction of the net force.
-The acceleration is opposite the direction of the net force.The acceleration is in the direction of the net force.
Why does a heavy parachutist fall faster than a lighter parachutist who wears a parachute of the same size?
-Terminal speed must be lower to make air drag equal the gravity force for a heavier person.
-Terminal speed is inversely proportional to the mass of the parachutist.
-Gravity is greater on the heavier person, so they fall at g.
-Terminal speed must be higher to make air drag equal the gravity force for a heavier person.Terminal speed must be higher to make air drag equal the gravity force for a heavier person.
Air resistance on a parachutist at terminal speed _______.
-no longer depends on speed
-is the same for both a heavy and light person with the same size parachutes.
-is less for a heavy person
-is greater for a heavier personis greater for a heavier person
Compared to a 1-kg block of solid iron, a 2-kg block of solid iron has twice as much
-all of the above
-none of the aboveall of the above
Which has zero acceleration? An object
-moving at constant velocity.
-in mechanical equilibrium.
-all of the above-none of the aboveall of the above
The force required to maintain a constant velocity for an astronaut in free space is equal to
-the force required to stop the astronaut.
-the mass of the astronaut.
-the weight of the astronaut.
-none of the abovezero.
A 2000-kg car experiences a braking force of 10,000 N and skids to a stop in 6 seconds. The speed of the car just before the brakes were applied was
-none of the above30 m/s.
When you push against a wall, what pushes back?
-Your hand pushes back.
-The wall pushes back.
-Your fingers push back.
-Nothing pushes back.The wall pushes back.
State Newton's third law of motion.
-For every action there is an opposite reaction.
-For every action there is an identical reaction.
-For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
-For every action there is an unequal and opposite reaction.For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
If the system is considered to be the apple and the orange together (Figure 1) , is there a net force on the system when the apple pulls (ignoring friction with the floor)?
-Yes, there is a net force because the orange must accelerate when pulled.
-Yes, the action of the apple is on the orange, so the net force is not zero.
-The net force is zero because the action and reaction forces are equal and opposite.
-There is no net force because the system is frictionless.The net force is zero because the action and reaction forces are equal and opposite.
When a karate chop breaks a board with a 3000-N blow, the amount of force that acts on the hand is
-6000 N.3000 N.
As a ball falls, the action force is the Earth's pull on the ball. The reaction force is the
-air resistance acting against the ball.
-acceleration of the ball.
-ball's pull on Earth.
-none of the aboveball's pull on Earth.
An astronaut of mass 70 kg weighs 700 N on Earth's surface. His weight on the surface of Mars, where the acceleration due to gravity is 3.7 m/s2, would be about
-the same as on Earth.
-none of the above260 N.
A pair of equal-length vectors at right angles to each other have a resultant. If the angle between the vectors is less than 90°, their resultant is
A river 100 m wide flows due south at 1 m/s. A boat that goes 1 m/s relative to the water leaves the west bank. To land at a point due east of its starting point, the boat must be pointed
-nowhere it can't be done.
-southeast.nowhere - it can't be done.
Distinguish between force and impulse.
-Impulse is force per time interval.
-Impulse is force times a time interval.
-Force and impulse are the same.
-Force is impulse times a time interval.Impulse is force times a time interval.
Which has a greater momentum: a heavy truck at rest or a moving skateboard?
-Both have zero momentum.
-The moving skateboard.
-Both have the same momentum.
-The heavy truck at rest.The moving skateboard.
When you are struck by a moving object, is it favorable that the object makes contact with you over a short time or over a long time?
-Short contact time decreases the magnitude of the average force and is favorable.
-Short contact time increases the magnitude of the average force and is favorable.
-Long contact time decreases the magnitude of the average force and is favorable.
-Long contact time increases the magnitude of the average force and is favorable.Long contact time decreases the magnitude of the average force and is favorable.
In which is momentum conserved: an elastic collision or an inelastic collision?
-Momentum is conserved only in elastic collisions.
-Momentum is conserved in elastic and inelastic collisions.
-Momentum is conserved in neither elastic nor inelastic collisions.
-Momentum is conserved only in inelastic collisions.Momentum is conserved in elastic and inelastic collisions.
If the equally massive cars of the preceding question stick together after colliding inelastically, how does their speed after the collision compare with the initial speed of car A?
-Their speed is half the initial speed of car A.
-Their speed is twice the initial speed of car A.
-Their speed is zero.
-Their speed is equal to the initial speed of car A.Their speed is half the initial speed of car A.
A freight train rolls along a track with considerable momentum. If it rolls at the same speed but has twice as much mass, its momentum is
-four times as much.
Compared with falling on a stone floor, a wine glass may not break when it falls on a carpeted floor because the
-stopping time is longer on the carpet.
-carpet provides a smaller impulse and a longer time.
-stopping time is shorter on the carpet.
-carpeted floor provides a smaller impulse.stopping time is longer on the carpet.
A cannon recoils while firing a cannonball. The speed of the cannon's recoil is relatively small because the
-momentum is mainly concentrated in the cannonball.
-momentum of the cannon is smaller.
-cannon has much more mass than the cannonball.
-force against the cannon is smaller than against the ball.cannon has much more mass than the cannonball.
Two identical gliders slide toward each other on an air track. One moves at 1 m/s and the other at 2 m/s. They collide, stick, and moves at
-1/3 m/s.1/2 m/s.
A 5000-kg freight car moving at 2 m/s collides with a 10,000-kg freight car at rest. They couple upon collision and move away at
-1/3 m/s.2/3 m/s.
What impulse occurs when an average force of 15 N is exerted on a cart for 3.0s?p = 45 kg⋅m/s
How much impulse stops a 58- kg carton sliding at 5.0 m/s when it meets a rough surface?J = 290 N⋅s
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