Summary Class notes - Prenatal, Infant and toddler development

- Prenatal, Infant and toddler development
- Woods
- 2016 - 2017
209 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Prenatal, Infant and toddler development

  • 1480201200 Exam 4

  • Who thinks cognitive development occurs as child’s mind forms psychological structures and modifies them to fit with external reality 
  • Cognition develops in similar ways at about the same ages
    Stage Theory
  • Children ACTIVELY construct their knowledge
    Constructivist Approach
  • The stages of Piaget's theory of cognitive development (4)
    Concrete Operational 
    Formal Operational
  • Psychological structures or organized ways of making sense of experiences
    (changes with age)
  • Schemes for infants are based on _____ and _____
    Senses and motor movements
  • Schemes is based on ____ for children
  • Schemes are ____ for adults
  • Process of building/refining schemes through interaction with the environment (assimilation and accommodation)
  • Modifying Schemes
    Adaption and organization
  • External world is interpreted in terms of current schemes (absorbed)
    Ex. dog scheme: four legs, two, ears, and a tail
  • Create new schemes or adjust old schemes to better fit the environment (change scheme)
    Ex. Horse Scheme: four legs, two ears, a tail, AND HOOVES
  • Assimilation or Accommodation?
    One-year-old Tori holds the remote control to her ear like a telephone
  • Assimilation or Accommodation?
    At 2, Tori realized the remote control doesn't ring and no voices come from it. Tori no longer holds the remote control to her ear.
  • Internal rearrangement and linking of schemes to form an interconnection cognitive system
  • Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage
    Infants and Toddlers (0-24 months)
  • Means of building schemes by REPEATING chance events caused by motor activity Ex. Rubber band babies 
    Accidental = >Purposeful
    Centered on body = >Objects
    Circular Reactions
  • Sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately coordinated to solve a problem 
    8-12 months
    Intentional/Goal-Directed Behavior
  • The understranding that objects exist beyond one's perception of them
    -According to Piaget, 8-12 months
    -Evidence by 2 MONTHS
    -A-not-B error (know the object exists, but may not be able to use the problem solving we do. Always looks in the first place the object was put)
    Object Permanence
  • Tests babies' knowledge of physical world (e.g. object permanence)
    -Babies see an EXPECTED EVENT (consistent with reality) and and UNEXPECTED EVENT (violates reality)
    -More attention to the unexpected event --> awareness of that aspect of the physical world
    VOE (Violation of Expectation) is controversial
    Violation of Expectation method
  • Children's failure to display permanence may have been an issue of PERFORMANCE rather than COMPETENCE
    Object Permanence
  • VOE object permanence test
    a. Habituation 
    b. Placing the box
    c. Possible event   
    d. Impossible event (look a lot longer at this)
  • Object Permanence 
    Other evidence - Object tracking
    Infants track hidden objects; anticipate reappearance
  • Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage
    Mental Representations
    Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate 
    -Concepts (categories)
    -According to Piaget 18 months
    -Evidence by 6 DAYS
    -Deferred Imitation
  • The ability to remember and copy behavior after a delay
    Deferred Imitation
  • Ability to represent a symbol for something else
    -Need to be able to discriminate
    -Then keep in memory
    Symbolic Understanding
  • Make-believe play begins by ___ years
    2 years
  • Realization that WORDS can cue mental images of things not present (a symbolic ability) ~11-12 months
    Displaced Reference
  • Piaget's Contributions
    -Basis for LOTS of infant/child research
    -Overall theory is sound
    -Guides developmentally appropriate practice
  • Infants are BORN with knowledge systems or core domains of thought
    -Rapid development in these domains
    -Experience "triggers" a module
       -space, language, and object knowledge
    Core knowledge perspective
  • The human mind is a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
    Learning and memory are similar to a computer
    Input --> Storage --> Processing --> Retrieval
    Categories include: memory, categorization, problem solving, processing speed, and attention
    Information Processing Theory
  • Information Processing Approach
    Sensory Input --> Sensory Memory --> Attention --> Short-Term Working Memory 
    (can only hold so much information at once) --> (storage) Long-Term Memory (is indefinite) (retrieval is the problem with long term memory) --> Behavior/Action Central Executive
  • Infant Number Concepts 
    Infants have a basic understanding "_____"
  • Younger infant's attention is "captured"
    Voluntarily directing attention improves with age
    SHIFT ATTENTION from one thing to another
  • Infants naturally look at things that are new (new is interesting)
    Novelty Response
  • Infants sometimes look at things that are familiar
    Familiarity Response
  • Gradual reduction in strength of response due to repetitive stimulation
  • Following habituation, an increase in responsiveness to a new stimulus
    Recovery (dishabituation)
  • -Is seen in newborns
    -Occurs more rapidly with age (older = faster)
    -Info is processed more efficiently
    -Ability to look away improves
    -There are INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES in habituation speed
  • Short-term Memory (STM)
    Infants hold about ___-___ items in STM at a time
    so can adults
    1-3 items
  • Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a response
    Classical Conditioning
  • Principles discovered accidentally by ____ in dogs

    Dog got fed food and a key jingled now dog salivates when hears keys jingles; knows he will get fed
  • Later extended by Watson to infants 
    "Little Albert" case study (white rat)
    Classical Conditioning
  • CONSEQUENCES of a behavior affect the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
    Operant Conditioning
  • ____ increases a behavior
  • ____ decreases a behavior
  • Learn that a behavior (sucking) has a consequence (hearing the mother's voice)
    Operant Conditioning
  • Mobile and similar studies show:
    Up to six months babies are remembering by mobile task
    After six months baby remembers by trained task
    Operant Conditioning
  • Noticing whether a stimulus is similar/identical to one previously experienced 
    -Context dependent
    -Varies by assessment type
    -Varies by stimulus
    Recognition Memory
    By __ months, remember for __ weeks
    -context is less important
    9 months, 6 weeks
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by ___ years - reciprocal play (includes imitation)
2 years
___ months - engage with others in play
12 months
Early ___-Involves activity with self   -then objects-Is often initiated by another (social play)
Early play
-Provides opportunities to learn about the world-Many early emotional responses occur in the context of this-Enhances cognitive, motor, and socio-emotional development at every age
With development of ___-____:-Effortful control (self-control) improves-Compliance/Defiance increase-Begin using consciencelike verbalizations   -says, "No, can't!" to self-Delay-of-gratification improves
-Experience watching own body-Sensitive caregiving/Secure attachment-More joint attention leads to more social referencing
Influences on Self-Awareness
Does the baby recognize self in mirror?-A spot of rouge is dabbed on the nose-Those with self-awareness, will touch nose and/or appear coy/embarrassed
Rouge test
An objective understanding that the self is a unique object; includes representation of own body -Develops are 2ND BIRTHDAY
Explicit Self-Awareness
___-month-olds prefer videos of others
__-month-olds prefer novel view of own body -Seems to be grounded in perception and action-Understands own body is distinct from others