Summary Class notes - Principles of consumer studies

Course
- Principles of consumer studies
- Ilona de Hooge
- 2020 - 2021
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
392 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Principles of consumer studies

  • 1598911200 2. Attitudes

  • Attitudes =
    a person’s evaluation of an object on an favorable or unfavorable continuum.


    of 


    A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable fashion in relation to some object
  • Name, define, and explain the three mentioned contexts that are relevant for attitudes
    • (a) the person as a whole, in relation to values, broad goals, language, emotions, other attitudes, and the lifespan; 
    • (b) the social context, including communicators, as well as social media and social networks; and 
    • (c) the broad context, particularly the sociohistorical context, in relation to the generational, cultural, and historical backdrop of attitudes.
  • When we think of a consumer, multiple factors of a consumer can influence his/her attitude. Which of the following statements is correct? A consumer’s attitude and changes in his/her attitude.
    Can be used in the service of an action goal


    Attitudes can be remembered to help consumers think of what they like and dislike about the execution and the outcomes of a behaviour. These can be called action goals
  • Culture is one of the factors that plays a role in attitude and consumer choices. What can you say about the role of culture?
    Non-Western culture consumers have more difficulties making consumer choices




     In non-Western cultures, attitudes are more formed on the basis of social expectations, norms, and obligations (normative pressures) compared to Western cultures. Consumers in Non-Western cultures have attitudes to help them conform and validate shared social norms. As a consequence, their attitudes contain contradictory information. This makes it difficult for non-Western consumers to make consumer choices.
  • There are different views on attitude change. According to Albarracin & Shavitt (2018), what is the most likely? Attitude change.
    sometimes occurs, because attitudes are partially fixed in memory and partially constructed at the moment
  • The understanding of attitudes currently exists in three fundamental contexts. What are the three fundamental contexts?
    Personal context, social context, and socio-historical context



    The holistic contemporary understanding of attitude exists in three fundamental contexts, namely the person (consumer) as a whole, the social context surrounding the consumer, and the broader historical context. . Each of these contexts explains a part of attitude formation, attitude change, attitude-behavior correspondence, and persuasion.
  • According to Albarracin and Shavitt’s (2018) article, what are consumer values?
    A consumer’s attitudes towards abstract entities. 





    Abstract entities can be things such as security values, individualizing values, or moral values.
  • What are attitudes? Please provide a definition that all perspective would agree with (1 point)
    Attitudes are a consumer’s evaluation of a certain object (on a favorable to unfavorable continuum) 




    De attitudes die iemand heeft over een bepaald object.
  • What are the three different contexts in which attitudes can form and change? Please name every context, and shortly describe it. (6 points)
    The individual context, the social context, and the historical context.

    The individual context is that of the consumer as a whole. It relates to values, broad goals, emotions, other attitudes, and the lifespan.

    The social context includes others (communicators), and concerns social media and social networks.

    The historical context is the broad context, especially the sociohistorical context. It relates to generational, cultural, and historical backdrop of attitudes.
  • Choose one of the three contexts from answer B. (individual context, social context, historical context) Within every context, Albarracin & Shavitt (2018) name multiple factors that play a role in attitude formation and change. Name the context that you have chosen, name one factor that plays a role in attitude formation and change within this context, and explain how this factor influences attitude (change). (3 points)
    Within the individual context, the authors name values. Values are attitudes towards abstract entities. These can for example be security values, self-interest values, binding values, or moral values. Values can have a direct influence on attitudes. When a consumer is reminded of his egalitarian values, for example, he will have a more positive attitude towards egalitarian actions (for example, law about equal rights). But when there are two values related to one attitude object (for example, self-interest and egalitarian values), they are more or less important for attitude formation depending on temporal distance. For example, when something will happen very soon, self-interest values are more important in forming attitudes than egalitarian values.
  • explain attitude change according to the PAST model
    PAST(past attitudes are still there model) 
    According to the model, old attitudes that the individual does not consider as valid or appropriate any more are “tagged” in memory as false. Attitude change may cause people to experience “implicit ambivalence,” i.e., a state of uncertainty at an unconscious level.
  • According to Bohner & Dickel (2011) in their article on Attitudes and Attitude change, attitude change can be best defined as…
    Processing information with the result of forming an evaluation


    Attitude change = change in the evaluation of an object of thought
  • The PAST model is developed as a model of multiple attitudes. The PAST model suggests that…
    Attitude change is attitude formation and tagging a stored attitude as invalid






    • The PAST model stands for “past attitudes are still there” model. It suggests that previous attitudes are labeled as invalid, and then a new attitude is formed.
    • According to the model, old attitudes that the individual does not consider as valid or appropriate any more are “tagged” in memory as false. 
    • figure 2 illustrates this state of affairs for the example of an individual who initially held a positive evaluation of the concept of smoking. After processing a persuasive communication about the health hazards of smoking, this person may form a negative attitude; the former positive attitude, however, will remain stored and be tagged as invalid.
  • An implicit attitude…
    Does not correlate fully with an explicit attitude


    • Explicit attitude: attitude measured by self-report instruments, e.g.,questionnaires
    • Implicit attitudes: attitudes measured by implicit procedures, e.g., the implicit association test
    • Implicit attitudes cannot be observed directly, they are measured with the Implicit association task or the evaluative priming task (which are not self-report tasks), and we do not know of any sequence between explicit and implicit attitudes. We do know that implicit attitudes are not the same as explicit attitudes.
    • investigate aspects of attitudes that  are  not  open  to  introspection
  • The associative propositional model (APE) model explains:
    Patterns of implicit and explicit attitudes






    • The APE model assumes that attitudes can be rooted in two types of mental processes: associative evaluation and propositional reasoning. With these two types of mental processes, the model can explain different patterns of implicit and explicit attitude change that have been found in previous studies.
    • p398 a more fine-grained approach that can account for a complex interplay of implicit and explicit attitude change is the APE model. 
      • it assumes that attitudes can be rooted in two types of mental processes: associative evaluation and propositional reasoning.
      • associative evaluations are seen as the basis of implicit attitudes.
  • What is an attitude?
    Across all perspectives, a summary evaluation of an object


    • attitudes: evaluations of an object of thought 
    • attitude objects comprise anything a person may hold in mind, ranging from the mundane to the abstract, including things, people, groups, and ideas
  • According to Bohner & Dickel (2011), when do we speak of attitude change? (2 points)
    1. Attitude change occurs when it involves both the retrieval of stored evaluations and the consideration of new evaluative information to varying extents.
      1. attitude change = change in the evaluation of an object of thought
  • The APE model has been designed to explain attitude change. Shortly describe the APE model. Explain with an example how, according to this model, attitudes can change.  (6 points)
    The APE model stands for “associative and propositional processing in evaluations”. It assumes that there are two routes to attitudes: associative evaluation, and propositional reasoning. Associative evaluations are activated automatically when a consumer sees a stimulus. The associative patterns generated depend on the context, and give rise to implicit attitudes.

    For example, a consumer may have positive automatic associations with fastfood, leading to a positive implicit attitude towards fastfood. (niet over nadenken)
    The propositional reasoning is conscious, and is based on inferences made from information.
    It forms the basis of explicit attitudes. (er wel over nadenken)
    Here the consumer may think of all the information about the negative sides of fastfood, and develop a negative explicit attitude towards fastfood.



    Er wordt op twee manieren gekeken naar attitudes. voor een bepaald voorwerp kun je namelijk er positief naar kijken of er negatief naar kijken. (associative evaluation en propositional reasoning)
  • Independent of the model used, attitudes can be measured. What are two ways in which attitudes be measured? (2 points)
    Attitude can be measured in two ways: 1) Explicit self-report instruments like questionnaires 2) Implicit response time-based measures like Implicit Associative Tests (IAT)




    ( de joystick test, de test met plaatjes die heel snel achter elkaar gegeven kunnen worden, zodat er geen oordeel over gemaakt kan worden, maar er meteen gehandeld moet worden)
  • Compared to attitudes, beliefs are non-evaluative,
    so attitudes are evaluative 
  • Attitude change =

    = form a new attitude, old attitude = label 'false' -> PAST model

    = change in memory representation

    = different set of info activated
  • Functional perspective = stable-entity perspective = file-draws perspective = memory-based view 

    Constructive perspective = constructionist view = in-the-moment evaluation 
  • Verschil tussen Intuitive route en cognitive route
    Intuitive route 
    • Pheripheral route (ELM model)
    • Associative processing (APE model)
    • Low motivation route (persuasion)


    Cognitive route 
    • Central route (ELM model)
    • Propositional reasoning (APE model)
    • High motivation route (persuasion)
  • Values zijn waardes die je je hele leven volgt = bigger or general (i want to life a health life)
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Using Shove et al.’s (2012) three elements of practice, describe the practice of cycling.
Materials: het hebben van een fiets, tire pump, bike racks bike paths and broader road infrastructure; specialised clothing, bags and accessories.
Meanings : A key meaning is the idea of cycling as ‘normal’ – that is, a feasible and appropriate mode of transportation or recreation. Other meanings: framing of cycling as healthy, easy or inexpensive.

Social practices are made of different elements. Shove et al (2012: 23) suggest there are three types of element: material, competence and meaning. They form a block of interconnected elements. Elements shape each other.
Online shopping was an urban phenomenon (2)
  • Urban consumers are more likely to buy online 
  • Urban retailers are more likely to sell online 
The advantages of cities wordt mogelijk gemaakt door (2)
Scale economies 
  • increasing returns to scale 
  • firm specific 

agglomeration economies 
  • benefits of being located amid other businesses 
  • big labour market 
  • big consumer market
  • external to the firm 
City kan op twee manieren bekeken worden
Conceptually 
  • ruimte tussen mensen en firms 
  • absence of physical space between people and firms 


Empirically 
  • hoe ernaar gekeken wordt (bv stadsrechten)
  • formal and somewhat arbitrary political units that bear the name 'cities' or 'metropolitan areas'
Short-cuts people make in memorizing
Focus on the most memorable part of an experience, which is often the peak and the end of the experience
Hindsight bias =
People rationalise the priority they gave to living conditions because they believe that they knew the consequences all along
Confirmation bias =
People selectively search for and interpret information to confirm their choices and beliefs
Homo economicus Utility maximisation based on:
  • Complete information 
  • Perfect computations 
  • Personal preferences 
  • Fully rational 
  • Unbounded will-power
Institutional buyer =
These are either governmental institutions or private organisations
Customer =
The one who purchases goods for his own use or for the use of others or else