Summary Class notes - Psychological assessment

Course
- Psychological assessment
- 2020 - 2021
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
247 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Psychological assessment

  • 1585605600 college 1

  • What do phrenology and physiognomy have in common?
    They are both operationalizations of the idea that the exterior, looks etc. Are an indication of a persons personality and intelligence.
  • How do we call a study that states that personality and intelligence can be determined from the shape of the skull, implying that the growth of certain brain parts causes the skull to take a certain shape?
    Phrenology
  • How do we call a study that states that personality and intelligence can be determined from the face?
    Physiognomy
  • Give a timeline of psychological assessment
    • 2200 B.C. People were tested to determine their fitness to work for the Chinese emperor
    • Around 18th century: the outside is an indication of the inside, physiognomy, phrenology
    • Late 19th century: "copper era". Perception and response speed become indicators of intelligence. They were determined by machines hence the copper era
    • Early 20th century: first intelligence tests as we know them today
    • Early 20th century: Personality can be determined through projection. By letting people react to unstructured stimuli people will answer based on instinct which will show personality
  • What are some biases to watch out for in psychological assessment?
    • Blind spot bias
    • salience effect
    • contrast error
    • illusory correlation
    • confirmation bias
    • fundamental attribution bias
  • How do we call the tendency to overestimate the influence of dispositions (traits) and to underestimate the influence of situational factors (states, reaction to situation) in judging peoples behavior.
    The fundamental attribution bias
  • How do we call only search for and pay attention to information that is consistent with one's own conclusion; ignore or selectively interpret hypotheses, beliefs and conflicting information
    The confirmation bias
  • How do we call giving more weight to striking information than non‐striking information when drawing conclusions?
    The salience effect
  • How do we call a concept during a performance appraisal of a candidate where his/her valuation is impacted by the fact that the previous candidates were relatively good or bad. It is an error where a person sets a certain benchmark, which affects the appraisal of the candidate being interviewed.
    The contrast error
  • How do we call it when we perceive links between tests and own conclusion, which do not exist empirically?
    An illusory correlation
  • What are some solutions to defend yourself from bias?

    1. Awareness of the limitations of clinical judgment

    2. Include circumstances
    3. Think about verification and falsification
    4. Take specific instruments that are as reliable and
    (ecologically) valid as possible.
    5. Think about whether 1 instrument is sufficient.
    6. Stay critical
    7. Follow hypothesis testing model
  • Describe the empirical cycle
    • Observation
    • induction of theory
    • deduction of predictions
    • testing
    • evaluation
  • Vanaf nu; lees diagnostic process bij empirical cycle
  • What are properties of science that are implemented in psychological assessment?
    • We collect systematic data collection
    • in order to test theories
    • we are transparant which allows replication
    • the empirical cycle is followed
    • e use reliable and valid instruments
  • The empirical cycle has specific subparts in psychological assessment; the diagnostic process, what are the subparts for observation?
    Exploration done;
    • study the request
      • analysis of request
      • study file
    • study request for help
      • analysis of request for help
      • exploration of the problem
  • When exploring the client, the pro can stop de process, why would you do this during this stage?
    • Because the problem is not psychologic
    • the problem doesn't fit the expertise of the pro
    • the relation between pro and client isn't fit for process
  • The empirical cycle has specific subparts in psychological assessment, what are the subparts for induction?
    • Based on the observations;
      • the pro forms a reflection of the scenario of the client
      • the pro forms a theory through a series of questions
  • The empirical cycle has specific subparts in psychological assessment, what are the subparts for deduction?
    • Based on the theory of the pro predictions are made about the status of the client
    • tools are picked to test these predictions, to assess the client.
  • The empirical cycle has specific subparts in psychological assessment, what are the subparts for testing?
    Testing consists of administrating the chosen tools and process the results of the test
  • The empirical cycle has specific subparts in psychological assessment, what are the subparts for evaluation?
    • You integrate all the information you have gathered in a report;
      • the analysis of the problem
      • the theory of the pro
      • the assessment of basic questions
      • the outcome of the test
  • On what parts of life does a psychological assessment have influence?
    • Whether someone gets treatment or not
    • whether someone get medical health care costs refunded
    • whether someone has to go to a clinic
  • The Nederlands Instituut voor Psychologie has a code of ethics, what are the basic principles of this code?
    • Responsibility; Psychologists must exercise restraint when making professional statements in the media about persons, with or without their consent. They must be aware of their responsibility to prevent harm.
    • Integrity; Psychologists may not mix professional and non‐ professional roles that could affect each other
    • Respect; Psychologists must be aware and respect the knowledge, insight and experience of the person involved. Psychologists must respect the mental and physical integrity of the person involved and may not harm his or her dignity.
    • Expertise; Psychologists must take the limits of their own expertise into account in their professional activities and may not take on any assignments for which they lack the necessary expertise.
  • How do we call the tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people and to be less able to recognize biases in oneself than in others.
    The blind spot bias
  • What are the six major processes of any major psychological assessment?

     1. Conducting a clinical interview
    2. Choosing a battery of tests
    3. Administering, scoring, and interpreting tests
    4. Integrating and conceptualizing information gathered from test results, the clinical interview, behavioral observations, and other sources
    5. Writing a psychological assessment report
    6. Providing feedback to the individual assessed and/ or the referral source 
  • What are the steps of psychological assessment?
    • Clinical assessment; interview
    • selecting tests
    • testing
    • integration of all data
    • writing assessment report
    • providing feedback
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How do we call a type of validity that is used to determine whether a new psychometric assessment will increase the predictive ability beyond that provided by an existing method of assessment.
Incremental validity
What do we do in therapeutic assessment?
  • the client develops highly personal and individualized questions together with the assessor (Why do I find myself drinking, eating and smoking excessively?). 
  • It is specifically about these questions and about helping people understand themselves better and find solutions for their persistent problems.
Why do we use multimethod assessment?

Self-report measures are useful in many contexts, but sometimes it is not so easy to know if people are truthful or have enough insight in their own problems. Thus, it is often useful to use multiple methods.
Behavioral observations and performance-based methods (Rorschach, TAT) can also be used.
What are some ethics about the involvement of the child apply?
  • 11+: involve the child as much as possible (however, there is no right of access before the age of 12).
  • < 16: discuss the report with legal representatives, unless it would damage the interest of the child.
  • 16+: fully involve the child, unless it can’t be considered capable of reasonable judgement of their interest.
The cbcl has three forms, which are they?
each for a different type of informant:
  • Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; for the parents)
  • Teacher Rating Form (TRF; for teachers)
  • Youth Self-Report (YSR; for the child).
Name an important behavior rating scale that is often used in assessment and scientific studies.
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
A lot of people are involved with the child in question, so they can provide a different perspective on the context of the problems. There are often differences between stories of informants, what causes these differences?
  • Bias: differences in motivation (parents want help for the child, so they exaggerate) or social desirability.
  • Context: one’s behavior depends on the situation (at school, a child be more deviant than at home).
  • Frame of reference: different informants have different frames of reference (teachers can compare the child to a whole class, while parents only have the siblings to compare to).
  • Views & access: there are differences in the view of what is normal and access someone has to information.
What are advantages of interview a child?
  • It helps to understand the attitude of adults that applied the child (what do they have difficulties with?).
  • It helps to understand the attitude of the child about the assessment (how does he/she feel about it?).
  • It helps to determine the severity of the complaints and if they are situation specific or not (If a child has ADHD symptoms should probably also be present during the interview, not just at school).
  • The child can bring up information that he/she doesn’t dare to in front of the parents.
  • The child can inform the psychologist about things that other people can’t observe (thoughts, feelings).
When interviewing children (and adolescents), what are some practical problems that may be in play?
  • Repetition of questions: while you want to be sure of an answer, asking a question again may result in the child thinking the answer was wrong and changing it.
  • Suggestive questions: children are even more sensitive to suggestive questions than adults.
  • Unpleasant questions: questions about thoughts, emotions, worries and fear are often perceived as unpleasant (it is unclear if it is due to incomprehension or simply not liking to talk about the subjects).
  • Self-reflection & memory: children have more limited memory and self-reflection skills than adults.
  • Loyalty: children are often loyal to their parents or other adults close to them.
When a child shows problem behavior, next to a disorder, what other factors can be of influence on this behavior?
  • School
  • family 
  • child characteristics
  • parent characteristics
  • style of parenting