Summary Class notes - sexology

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- sexology
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Summary - Class notes - sexology

  • 1591048800 chapter 1

  • How do we call Being male, female, or some other gender such as trans?
    Gender
  • How do we call the idea that there are only two genders, male and female?
    Gender binary
  • How do we call behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm?
    Sexual behavior
  • Which three types of influence is believed the media has on the way people view sex?
    • Cultivation
    • agenda setting
    • social learning
  • How do we call the idea that the media define what is important and what is not by which stories they cover?
    Agenda setting
  • How do we call the idea that the media provide role models whom we imitate?
    Social learning
  • How do we call Traditional ideas and values passed down from generation to generation within a group and transmitted to members of the group by symbols (such as language)?
    Culture
  • How do we call the tendency to regard one’s own ethnic group and culture as superior to others and to believe that its customs and way of life are the standards by which other cultures should be judged?
    Ethnocentrism
  • How do we call A societal regulation prohibiting sexual interaction between blood relatives, such as brother and sister or father and daughter?
    Incest taboos
  • What is one major generalization that emerges from cross- cultural studies?

    • all societies regulate sexual behavior in some way, 
    • though the exact regulations vary greatly from one culture to the next
  • On what concepts around sex do different cultures differ?
    • Frequency of intercourse
    •  Attitudes regarding premarital and extramarital sex,
    • masturbation
    • same-gender sexual behavior
    • gender roles
  • Some people classify sexual behaviors as “natural” or “unnatural,” depending on whether other species do, what are some sexual behaviors shown in both humans and other species?
    • Masturbation
    • Same-gender behavior
    • Sexual Signaling
    • mouth–genital stimulation
    • Nonsexual Uses of Sexual Behavior
  • Are there sexual behavior unique to humans?
    there is little in human sexuality that is completely unique to humans, except for elaborate, complex cultural influences. In other respects, we are on a continuum with other species.
  • How do we call a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality?
    Sexual health
  • How do we call basic, inalienable, rights regarding sexuality, both positive and negative. Right such as reproductive self-determination and sexual self-expression and freedom from sexual abuse and violence?
    Sexual rights
  • How do we call the view that exposure to the mass media makes people think that what they see there represents the mainstream of what really occurs?
    Cultivation
  • 1591135200 chapter 2

  • How do we call the application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behavior of animals, including humans?
    Sociobiology
  • Describe the socialbiological perspective on human sexual behavior.
    • People choose sex partners based on physical attractiveness, physical attractiveness is believed to be indicative of the health and vigor of the individual.
    • some animals have an active courtship (paringsdans) as an opportunity for each member of the prospective couple to assess the other’s fitness. In humans we have similar rituals:
      • The expenditure of money by men on dates indicates their ability to support a family.
      • Dancing permits the assessment of physical prowess, and so on.
    • socialbiologists view the human not any different than other animals, sexual behavior is still driven by natural selection
  • How do sociobiologists explain reproductive succes?
    • Once a man and a woman mate, there are several obstacles to reproductive success, two being infant vulnerability and maternal death.
    • Infant vulnerability is greatly reduced if the mother provides continuing physical care, including breast-feeding. It is further reduced if the father provides resources and security from attack for mother and infant.
    • Two mechanisms that facilitate these conditions are a pair-bond between mother and father, and attachment between infant and parent
  • How do we call the behavior and resources invested in offspring
    Parental investment
  • Next to natural selection there is also a specific type of selection that creates differences between males and females, what is it?
    Sexual selection
  • Of which two mechanisms does sexual selection consist?
    • competition among members of one gender (usually males) for mating access to members of the other gender,
      • males compete among themselves for the right to mate with females
    • preferential choice by members of one gender (usually females) for certain members of the other gender.
      • females, for their part, prefer certain males and mate with them while refusing to mate with other males
  • How do we call the study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection?
    Evolutionary psychology
  • What is the general theory of evolutionary psychology when it comes to sexual behavior?
    If behaviors evolved in response to selection pressures, it is plausible to argue that cognitive or emotional structures evolved in the same way. Thus, a man who accurately judged whether a woman was healthy and fertile would be more successful in reproducing
  • What is known about sexual strategies theory?
    females and males face different adaptive problems in short-term, or casual, mating and in long-term mating and reproduction. These differences lead to different strategies, or behaviors designed to solve these problems.
    • In short- term mating, a female may choose a partner who offers her immediate resources, such as food or money. Also the female wants to appear sexy to show availability
    • In long- term mating, a female may choose a partner who appears able and willing to provide resources for the indefinite future.
    • A male may choose a sexually available female for a short-term liaison but
    • avoid such females when looking for a long-term mate.
  • Which of the major theories in psychology are relevant to sexuality?
    • psychoanalytic theory, 
    • learning theory, 
    • social exchange theory, 
    • cognitive theory.
  • How do we call A psychological theory originated by Sigmund Freud; it contains a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious?
    The psychoanalytic theory
  • How do we call In psychoanalytic theory, the term for the sex energy or sex drive?
    Libido
  • Describe the psychoanalytic theory
    • the human personality can be divided into three major parts: the id, the ego, and the superego.
    • The id is the basic part of personality. It is the reservoir of psychic energy (including libido). Basically it operates on the pleasure principle.
    • the ego operates on the reality principle and tries to keep the id in line. The ego functions to make the person have realistic, rational interactions with others. Shapes the desires of the id so the actions to persue desires follow societal norms.
      • “We can’t do it now because the other members of the board are also here. Let’s wait until 5 p.m., when they’re all gone, and then do it.”
    • the superego is the conscience. It contains the values and ideals of society that we learn, and it operates on idealism. Thus its aim is to inhibit the impulses of the id and to persuade the ego to strive for moral goals rather than realistic ones.
  • How do we call areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation?

    Erogenous zones
  • Describe freuds stages of psychosexual development
    • 0-1; oral stage; The child’s chief pleasure is derived from sucking and otherwise stimulating the lips and mouth.
    • 1-3; anal stage; the anus is the primary erogenous zone and pleasure is derived from controlling bladder and bowel movement. The major conflict issue during this stage is toilet training.
    • 3-6; phallic stage;
      • The boy’s interest is focused on his phallus (penis), and he derives great pleasure from masturbating. Development of the oedipus complex. 
      • For a girl, the phallic stage begins with her traumatic realization that she has no penis, develops elektra complex and penis envy, wishing that she too had a wonderful wand. 
    • 6-puberty; latency; following the resolution of the Oedipus or Electra complex, the sexual impulses are repressed or are in a quiescent state, and so nothing much happens sexually.
    • puberty; genital stage; sexual urges become more specifically genital, and the oral, anal, and genital urges all fuse together to promote the biological function of reproduction.
  • Describe the oedipus complex
    • the boy loves his mother and desires her sexually. 
    • He hates his father, whom he sees as a rival for the mother’s affection. 
    • The boy’s hostility toward his father grows, but eventually he comes to fear that his father will retaliate by castrating him
    • Thus, the boy feels castration anxiety. 
    • Eventually the castration anxiety becomes so great that he stops desiring his mother and shifts to identifying with his father,
    • taking on the father’s gender role and acquiring the characteristics expected of males by society.
  • Describe the elektra complex
    • begins with her traumatic realization that she has no penis,  she suffers from penis envy, wishing that she too had a wonderful wand.
    • she begins to desire her father
    • her incestuous desires for her father result from a desire to be impregnated by him, to substitute for the unobtainable penis.
    • the girl’s resolution of the Electra complex is not so complete as the boy’s resolution of the Oedipus complex, and for the rest of her life she remains somewhat immature compared with men.
  • What are criticisms on freuds theory?
    • Since he states that many processes are unconscious it's hard to evaluate his ideas using scientific methods
    • his theory is based on data from his patients so his theory may provide a view not so much of the human personality as of disturbances in the human personality.
    • the Freudian theory is often seen as a male-centered theory that may cause harm to women
  • Describe classical conditioning
    The learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively elicits an unconditioned response. Eventually the conditioned stimulus itself will evoke the unconditioned response.

  • Nadia’s first serious boy- friend in high school always wears Erotik cologne when they go out. As they advance in their sexual intimacy,
    they have many pleasant times, where he strokes her thighs and other sexually responsive parts of her body and she feels highly aroused, always with the aroma of Erotik in her nostrils. One day she enters an elevator full of strangers in her office building and someone is wearing Erotik. Nadia instantly feels sexually aroused, although she is not engaged in any sexual activity. Describe which stimuli are present according to the classical conditioning theory.
    • Unconditioned stimulus; strokes her thighs and other sexually responsive parts of her body
    • unconditioned response; feeling aroused
    • conditioned response erotik cologne
    • conditioned response feeling aroused
  • Describe operant conditioning

    The process of changing the frequency of a behavior (the operant) by following it with positive reinforcement (which will make the behavior more frequent in the future) or punishment (which should make the behavior less frequent in the future).
  • How can operant conditioning occur in sexual behavior?
    • Sex can be a positive reinforcement to increase the likelihood of behavior
    • if a woman repeatedly experiences pain when she has intercourse, she will probably want to have sex infrequently or not at all.
    • the delay principle; STD's occur Each time he engages in intercourse, he finds it highly rewarding; this immediate reward maintains the behavior; the punishment, the pain of gonorrhea, does not occur until several days later and so is not effective in eliminating that behavior.
    • punishment is less effective than reinforcement to shape behavior. punishments sometimes do not eliminate a behavior but rather teach the person to be sneaky and engage in it without being caught. Parents sometimes punish children for masturbating; yet most of those children continue to masturbate, per- haps learning instead to do it under circumstances in which they are not likely to be caught.
  • Describe the delay principle
    consequences, whether reinforcement or punishment, are most effective in shaping behavior when they occur immediately after the behavior. The longer they are delayed after the behavior has occurred, the less effective they become.
  • How do we call A set of operant and classical conditioning techniques used to modify human behavior?
    Behavior modification
  • Describe olfactory aversion therapy in changing sexual behavior
    In aversion therapy, the problematic sexual behavior is punished using an aversive stimulus. Repeated pairing of the behavior and the aversive stimulus should produce a decline in the frequency of the behavior. This done by pairing the problematic sexual stimulus for example a child with an unpleasant stimulus like a bad smell.
  • Describe social learning
    • Complex form of operant conditioning involving imitation and identification; people see behavior of others they identify with and copy this behavior. If this behavior is reinforced the behavior will occur more often.
    • is present for example in gender identification
    • a girl acquires many characteristics of the female role by identifying with her mother and imitating her
    • various forms of sexuality may be learned through imitation
      • the sexiest girl in the senior class may find that other girls are imitating her behaviors and the way she dresses. 
      • a boy might see a movie in which the hero’s technique seems to “turn women on”; then he tries to use this technique with his own dates
  • How do we call A theory, based on the principle of reinforcement, that assumes that people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs?
    The social exchange theory
  • How do we call a hypothesis which predicts that men and women will choose as mates people who match them on physical and social characteristics. People who match will provide each other with similar rewards on dimensions such as attractiveness, social status, and wealth.
    The matching hypothesis
  • How do we call A general knowledge framework that a person has about a particular topic.
    A schema
  • Cognition can have a major influence on how we perceive sexual activities and how these make us feel.
  • Describe the gender schema theory
    • all of us possess a gen- der schema—a cognitive structure comprising the set of attributes (behaviors, personality, appearance) that we associate with males and females.
    • we tend to think of things as gender-related and to dichotomize them on the basis of gender.
  • Describe some research Bem did on gender schemas
    • 5- and 6-year-old children were shown pictures showing males or females performing either stereo- type-consistent activities (such as a girl baking cookies) or stereotype-inconsistent activities (such as girls boxing)
    • One week later the children were tested for their recall of the pictures. The results indicated that the children distorted information by changing the gender of people in the stereotype-inconsistent pictures, while not making such changes for the stereotype-consistent pictures.
    • children tended to remember a picture of girls boxing as having been a picture of boys boxing.
  • What can we conclude from this experiment?
    The schema helps us remember schema-consistent (stereotype-consistent) information well, but it distorts our memory of information that is inconsistent with the schema (stereotype-inconsistent).
  • Of which components does the feminist theory consist and what do they entail?
    • Gender status and inequality; gender signals status in a culture, with men having greater status and power which should be changed.
    • sexuality; Sexuality includes many specific issues, including rape, abortion, birth control, sexual harassment on the job, and pornography. Women’s sexuality has been repressed and depressed, but rarely expressed. These problems are the result of men’s control of women’s sexuality
    • gender roles and socialization; Our culture has well- defined roles for males and for females. From their earliest years, children are socialized to conform to these roles. we would be better off without gender roles, or at least that they need to be modified and made much more flexible.
    • intersectionality; we should simultaneously consider a person’s multiple group memberships and identities, including gender, race, social class, and sexual orientation, a person has multiple identities which are all part of this person.
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